Aims: Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) provide an effective aerial alternative for urban areas inspection due to its cost and safety when compared to more traditional methods. The purpose of this paper is to report the development of a system capable of analyzing digital images of the ground and of detecting potential invasion, unauthorized alterations on the ground and deforestation in protected natural areas. Study Design: The project was developed in collaboration between researchers in the context of the master's program in Science and Technology in Computation of the Federal University of Itajuba. Place and Duration of Study: Institute of Mathematics and Computation and Institute of Advanced Studies, between March 2012 and July 2013. Methodology: The Images are captured by a camera mounted on an autonomous electrical helicopter, which overflies the area under inspection. For the processing of the images an artificial neural network technique called Kohonen SOM (Self Organizing Map) will be used. The processing is actually composed of a sequence of steps that seek to collate the final common characteristics of a given image. Results: The Kohonen SOM allows grouping the pixels of an image with similar characteristics. In the case of this work, the pixels become widespread in two classes - white and black. After processing, there is a new output image with rearranged colors is produced. The same process can be used for detecting flaws in transmission lines in all three spectrums mentioned in this article. Conclusion: Today UAVs are already being used in many fields today and will certainly be largely used for urban areas surveillance. The use of the helicopter for land inspection the land showed significant results especially considering the low vibration level produced by its electric motor.
The present theoretical study proposes an analysis, underpinned by the basic foundations reported in the literature, aimed at establishing a generalization of the relationship between cyclic thermo-mechanical conversion processes and the physical exergy property defined for a system interacting with two different and independent reservoirs. The outcome of the study is the demonstration that physical exergy expresses both useful work or useful heat, if these interactions undergo conversion when withdrawn from a system. The approach to conversion consists in comparing the efficiency of (ideal) Carnot and Joule cycles leading to the argument that the Joule cycle is the one performing at maximum efficiency between two constant pressures, similarly to the Carnot cycle performing at maximum efficiency between two constant temperatures. In terms of specific (per cycle) work or heat of Carnot and Joule cycles, the study proves that the roles of temperature and pressure are opposed as evidenced by a performance optimization analysis for the two cycles. Interactions between a system and two independent reservoirs undergoing isothermal and isobaric processes respectively are examined in relation to useful work and useful heat. The aim and the novelty of this analysis is to explore the role of the Joule cycle and the pressure of system and isobaric reservoir, which are similar to the role of the Carnot cycle and the temperature of system and isothermal reservoir. This implies a generalized formulation of physical exergy which, for this reason, may be regarded as a temperature-and-pressure-dependent property in the general case of a system interacting with two reservoirs. Finally, the expression of the thermal and mechanical components of physical exergy, depending on temperature and pressure, and their relationship with the Carnot and Joule cycles, are envisaged as possible consequences of this analysis representing the basis for future research.
The load flow solution using optimal power flow algorithm is gaining the importance in open market for operating the electrical network in optimal way. The optimal power flow is a power flow problem in which certain controllable variables are adjusted to minimize the objective function while satisfying the constraints on the physical state variables and operating limits. Many attempts were made through various algorithmic steps to obtain the global solution quickly using conventional and evolutionary methods. Evolutionary methods like Genetic Algorithm with its own advantages finds its own utility in optimal power flow solutions. Genetic Algorithm is simple to implement but has global convergence difficulties with slow convergence rate for optimal power flow problems. This paper presents three algorithms with an effect of selection of control variables on the convergence of OPF. Different sets of control variables are used to detect their usefulness in the OPF solutions. Statistical parameter based study is also provided to visualize the effect of selection of control variables on OPF convergence with solution time and improved value. Extensive study is provided on IEEE 30 bus system to draw certain important conclusions.
Aims: This study aimed to evaluate the nutritional composition, rate of starch digestibility and predicted glycemic indices of selected nine commonly grown rice varieties in Nigeria. Place and Duration of Study: Samples were collected from Nigeria, analyzed at McGill University, Canada between 2012 and 2013. Methodology: The samples involved five improved varieties and four local varieties of milled, non-parboiled rice. Predicted glycemic index (pGI) was estimated by in vitro enzymatic starch digestion. Proximate nutrients and mineral compositions were determined by standardized methods. Results: The proximate, mineral composition and starch digestibility varied among samples. The predicted glycemic indices (pGI) were within the range of 66.09 to 73.20 %. Jamila had the lowest pGI and starch hydrolysis rate (66.09 % and 0.05 min-1,respectively). FARO 52 exhibited significant lowest phosphorus, potassium and magnesium (P<0.05). Yardass had significantly highest values for protein (11.59 %) and fat (1.47 %). Conclusion: The local rice varieties generally, portrayed lower rate of starch digestibility with higher nutritional value compared to improved rice varieties.
High resolution biostratigraphic study of Deb-1 well located in Dahomey Embayment, southwestern Nigeria was carried out on one hundred and eighteen (118) ditch cutting samples for nannofossils and fifty eight (58) samples for foraminifera studies with the view towards identifying the biostratigraphic zones, determine the age and paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the sediments. Laboratory preparation of both nannofossils and foramaminefa involve slide preparation and identification of forms present. Six biozonations were recognised for the nannofossil which include NN11 (Discoaster quinqueramus zone), NN8-NN10 (Catinaster coalithus zone), NN5-NN7 (Sphenolithus heteromorphus zone), NN4 (Helicosphaera ampliaperta), CC13-CC22 (Eiffellithus eximius zone, Micula decussata zone) and CC12 (Eiffellithus eximius zone) which belong to Late, Middle, Early Miocene, Coniacian-Campanian and Turonian ages respectively. However, the planktonic foraminifera zones identified are Heterohelix reussi zone (Upper Santonian), Dicarinella primitive zone (Lower Santonian), Archeoglobigerina bosquensis (Lowermost Santonian), Hedbergella planispira zone (Coniacian) and Heterohelix reussi zone (Turonian). The paleoenvironment of deposition based on Fisher’s diversity index shows a value that is less than 5.52 which is suggestive of environment not deeper that outer neritic. This is further corroborated with p/b ratio which indicates that the base of the section analysed is within the deep marine, the middle section is shallowing while the upper part is characterised by prograding depositional system (deltaic in nature). This is suggestive of a marginal marine to open marine system.
The occurrence, movement and control of groundwater, particularly in hard-rock areas, are governed by different factors such as topography, lithology, and structures like fractures, faults and nature of weathering. An attempt was made in the present study to investigate the extent of the influence of structures such as fractures and thereby delineate the nature of subsurface lithology with the help of electrical resistivity method. Vertical Electrical Soundings by Schlumberger array configuration were recorded in fifty stations of the study area. The choice of the sampling stations in, around and along the basin made the study the first of its kind in the area. The huge sample number made ease of the interpretations with reliability in establishing the geomorphology of the area around the river basin. Groundwater potential zones were delineated with the present status of the reserves. The lithological segregation of the hard rock terrain stands reference for future studies besides suitability of the area made the study in announcing the challenges to be faced for sustainability.
Many resorts were constructed along the northern coast of Egypt for recreational purposes. High waves often occur in the used-zone leading to uncomfortable conditions. Moreover, the resulting longshore current with high speeds due to wave breaking leads to undesirable current flow. Rip currents generated in the used-zone can also be a hazard to swimmers This study aims at testing the possibility of using detached low crested submerged breakwaters to provide suitable swimming conditions along the northern coast of Egypt. Detached low crested submerged breakwaters are considered as they do not obstruct the sea view and have lower negative impacts on the environment. This study attempts to provide a numerical examination for several configurations using different breakwater and the gap lengths. Three numerical models were used; refraction diffraction model for waves, hydrodynamic model for current circulation and one line model for shoreline movement. The best breakwater configuration to provide safe swimming area is recommended with an assessment of the negative impact on the shoreline stability. This study will be useful for the recreational resorts along the northern coast of Egypt.
Alkyl ester derivatives of palm kernel oil have been prepared for use as bio-dielectrics in oil filled HV electric equipment. Conduction and loss characteristics of the ester derivatives were studied to understand the behaviour of the material under electric field. Frequency response analyzer was used to study electrical conduction within the fluids since dielectric loss occurring at low frequencies under AC condition is dominated by mobile charge carriers. This is particularly important since power dissipation at power frequency, 50 Hz, may lead to dielectric heating. The dielectric response analysis of the samples with the range 10-3 - 104 Hz show a constant real relative permittivity at high frequency region. As the frequency drops below 101 Hz, there is interfacial polarization at the electrode-liquid interface, which results in a significant dielectric increment in the real part of the relative permittivity at low frequencies with a negative slope greater than 1 and a frequency independent conductance (εÊ¹ slope = -1). This is an indication of Maxwell-Wagner interfacial effect where electric double layer (EDL) is formed. The real part acquired a slope of about -1 around frequency of 103 Hz. This suggests that the establishment of the EDL may be tending towards steady state. This change in the low frequency dispersion could be due to the ionic species undergoing interfacial electrochemical processes, or ions of lower mobility may have contributed to the EDL formation within the frequency region. This may have limited the effect of the strongly divergent processes at the interface.
Aims: The interrelationships between heavy metals Lead (Pb), Copper (Cu), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr) and Zinc (Zn) and microorganisms in sediment and overlying water along the shoreline of Abonnema Island were investigated by determining the levels of Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Ammonia (NH3), and Sulphate (SO42-). Study Design: Water and sediment samples were collected from seven stations approximately 500 metres apart using plastic containers and Erkman grab sampler respectively. Glucose, palm oil, and cowbell powdered milk were separately added to each set of water and sediment samples and each inoculated with 0.05mg/l, 0.15mg/l and 0.5mg/l of copper, zinc, lead, chromium and cadmium and incubated for seven days at about 30ºC. Place and Duration of Study: The study was undertaken in the Institute of Geosciences and Space Technology, University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, Nigeria between January 2007 and November 2008. Methodology: Heavy metals were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Carbon dioxide, Ammonia, Sulphate in water and sediment were determined by titration, phenate, turbidimetric and KH2PO4 extraction methods using Spectrophotometer. Total heterotrophic counts were carried out on Nutrient agar plates. Total coliform and Total faecal coliform counts were determined using the most probable number (MPN) technique using Mac – Conkey broth. Petroleum degrading bacteria was isolated in petroleum agar. Results: The results showed that heavy metals had stimulatory effect on microbial functions in some cases and inhibitory effect in others. The stimulatory effect on CO2 respiration was more in the water than in the sediment while the stimulatory effect on NH3 respiration was more in the sediment than in the water. The stimulatory effect on SO42- respiration was more in the sediment than in the water. The inhibitory effects on NH3 and SO42- respiration were more in the water than in the sediment. The concentrations of CO2 and SO42- were within permissible limit while NH3 exceeded permissible limit. Conclusion: The inhibitory effects of the heavy metals on the levels of CO2, NH3 and SO42- resulting from the biodegradation of carbohydrate (glucose) and protein (cowbell powdered milk) show that the rate of cycling of carbon, Nitrogen and Sulphur in the coastal waters is being affected by the heavy metals. Thus effluents should be treated before discharge into the river while direct discharge of other heavy metal containing wastes into the river should be discouraged.
One of the most interesting members of the power electronic equipment is the matrix converter (MC), This converter is an attractive AC/AC direct power conversion topology. It has main advantages of adjustable speed and power quality compensation compared to AC/DC/AC conventional conversion in following, High quality in input and output current sinusoidal waveforms, zeros consumption of reactive power, and it has a high variable frequency. This paper proposes the application of a matrix converter to an induction motor drive system, where the matrix converter generates three phase pulses width modulation voltage pulses (PWM), to obtain high waveforms sinusoidal input/output current with high performance dynamic of induction motor. The control of the system is insured by a fuzzy logic controller (FLC), which performs closed loop control of the output current waveforms of the matrix converter by regulating the voltage transfer ratio, which is the relationship between the output voltage and the input voltage.. The objective of Venturini algorithms is to control the amplitude of the output voltage; so, by adding the third harmonics to the input and output voltages, the voltage transfer ratio, can be increased up to the desired output voltage amplitude. Simulations results will be presented.