This paper presents an integrated solution for olive oil tank farm management and optimum oil blending that has been designed specifically for the olive oil sector. The working scenarios are analyzed to define functional requirements and procedures for an integrated industrial automation solution, tailored to be used in a traditional sector that in most cases lacks the technological background and expertise to operate and support complex automation systems. The system makes an intelligent and cost effective integration of hardware and software components into a distributed architecture, thus ensuring maximum reliability. It allows olive oil enterprises to exploit their oil stock in an optimum way, ensuring constant quality, cost and total execution time optimization, quick response to the needs of each customer and safety through traceability, taking into consideration the requirements of all relevant EU regulations like (EC) 1989/2003 or 702/2007. The cost and total execution time optimization problem is solved by successive use of Linear Programming and Graph Search optimization.
The current carrying capacity, which is determined by the electrical-thermal behaviour, is one of the main features of an electrical contact system. The purpose of this study is to develop an analytical model which describes the electrical-thermal behaviour of electrical contact systems. Established mechanical, electrical, thermal and contact physical relations are combined to design the analytical model. Differential equations with appropriate boundary conditions are used to solve the heating problem. The various parts of an electrical connector represent separate subsystems. The geometry, the material properties and the heat transfer coefficients for the contact system, the terminal clamp and the wire have been taken into account. These different subsystems have been connected to obtain the overall temperature distribution. In order to verify the analytical model, contact systems made of three copper alloys with different electrical and thermal properties are investigated experimentally at various current loads. It was shown that the analytical model can predict the temperature rise for simple geometry well. Using the analytical model several parameters can be easily changed. Moreover, the main influencing factors and their relationships can be identified directly on the equations. Therefore, the physical - mathematical point of view of an analytical calculation can help to understand the model structure of a contact system.
In a wireless network, communication between a source and a destination mobile station (DMS) fails to establish if the source or the DMS is located inside a deep shadow-fading propagating channel. In this situation, intermediate mobile stations may be used to relay the signal between the two nodes. In a cellular system the source is a base station (BS) and the DMS is a weak mobile station (MS) while in an ad-hoc network, the source and the DMS are two nodes of the network. This paper presents the scheme of “multi-user spatial diversity” as a method of diversity to combat the undesired shadow-fade channel behavior. A model is presented for the case where one or several mobile stations (MSs) relay the signal between the source and the DMS, in a shadow-fading environment. A formula is derived for the average outage probability of the received signal-to-noise ratio at the DMS, when M intermediate MSs relay the signal from the source to the DMS according to a particular protocol. The outage probability improves as the number of the relays increases.
Aims: To reduce expenses and losses related to the dissemination of the coconut, PB121 hybrids were developed using “in vitro culture” technique. But this type of coconut hybrid planted in 1984 is not yet fully investigated. The aim of this study was to assess the physical and chemical characteristics of water from mature coconuts of this type of PB121 hybrid according to nut maturation stage and storage period. Methodology: The ordinary (in situ) PB121 was used as control material. Results: The results showed a decrease of the coconuts weight (1276.26 g to 876.08 g) and coconuts water weight (163.19 g to 140.66 g) from the 1st to 4th week of storage regardless of their ripeness stage. Water chemical parameters such as sugar content (27.66 mg/ml to 17.03 mg/ml), acidity (270 meq/100 g to 70 meq/100 g) and dry matter (5.06 % to 3.79 %) also declined during this period. On the other hand, the ash content and pH increased first and then decreased from the second week of storage. Conclusion: The results show an overall similarity between the two types of hybrids. However, water of “in vitro culture” PB121 hybrid is more acidic than that of ordinary PB121. It can therefore be used for drinking or be used to make vinegar.
Aims: The comparison of the four combination method to detect and isolate the Pectobacterium spp by using or not the step enrichment and evaluation the effect of the bacterial concentration and assessment date to symptoms expression on the infected plant potatoes. Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory Virology Hygiene and Microbiology, department Biology, Faculty of Sciences and Techniques, University Hassan-II Mohammedia Casablanca. Methodology: One hundred fifty samples were collected from symptomless tubers and twenty eight soil samples from the target field. Four combination procedures were performed with or without step enrichement by using DPEM and DIECA to detect and isolate Pectobacterium. The strains were isolated in the CVP (Cristal Violet Pectate) medium after enrichement step with DPEM. The strains S603TM3, S603TM5,P603A1, P303AH2, P303T1, P303K2, P303K4, P303MN2, P603GH2 were identified by biochemical and pathogenecity tests, the confirmation species was performed by PCR using primers Y1 and Y2. During this study, one strain was choice to evaluate the capacity of the Pectobacterium to develop symptoms non–emergence (NE) symptomless plant (SP), chlorosis (Chl); blackleg (Blg); desiccation (Dst).under the following conditions: the combination between the assement date (40 and 70 days) and bacterial concentration ( 104and 108 CFU/ml). Results: The isolates were performed on medium Crystal Violet Pectate. Their biochemical tests allowed us to conclude that all the isolates belonged to the Pectobacterium. The strains were able to develop the soft rot in the slices of potato, confirmed by PCR yielded an amplified fragment of the size (434 bp). The results of the combination test to detect the Pectobacterium revealed that the enrichment step was.the most efficient technique for Pectobacterium sp isolation comparing to direct plating on CVP medium, 23% of strains were isolated by enriched medium DPEM as compared without enrichment step 13%, detection of Pectobacterium sp was improved by adding Sodium Diethyldithiocarbamate (DIECA). The results of the combination conditions assessment date and bacterial concentration show no effect between the concentration 104 and 108 CFU/ml to develop the symptoms, in the otherwise, chlorosis and blackleg symptoms attenuated and increased after 70 days, the desiccation symptom was also significantly affected by an assessment date. Conclusion: The detection and isolation of Pectobacterium from asymptomatic potato tubers were improve by enrichement step. Some of these strains were belong to Pectobacteriumcarotovorum subsp. carotovorum. The development and expression symptom (no emergence, chlorosis, blackleg and dessication) of Pectobacterium in the potato plant is not correlated with assessment date and inoculums level. Otherwise, some physiological and environemental conditions can affect their development.
Aims: The aims of this study were to evaluate the influence of magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles on the cell viability of a sodium alginate (SA) hydrogel and to evaluate the influence of MgO nanoparticles on the interface tensile strength between polycaprolactone (PCL) and SA hydrogel scaffolds after two weeks of cell culture. Study Design: Mouse osteoblast cells (MT3T3E1) were cultured on two groups of scaffolds: SA hydrogel and SA hydrogel with 22 nm MgO particles. Quantitative cell viability tests were conducted on each of the samples to compare the influence of magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles on cell viability between the two groups. MT3T3E1 cells were cultured on two groups of coupled PCL-SA hydrogel scaffolds: PCL-SA hydrogel scaffold and PCL-SA hydrogel scaffold with 22 nm MgO particles. Tension tests were conducted on the coupled samples to compare the interface tensile strength between the two groups. Place and Duration of Study: The studies were carried out in the Stephenson Research and Technology Center at University of Oklahoma, the Interface Tissue Engineering Laboratory at the University of Central Oklahoma, and the Cell Biology Research Laboratory at the University of Central Oklahoma between June 2009 and May 2011. Methodology: Standard cell culture protocols were used to culture cells on SA hydrogel scaffolds with and without MgO nanoparticles for 4 and 24 hours. Absorbance and fluorescent intensity tests were conducted for quantitative measurements of cell viability. Cells were cultured on PCL-SA coupled scaffolds for 2 weeks. A custom tension setup was designed and fabricated to conduct tension tests on the coupled scaffolds to quantify the mechanical strength of the osseointegration. Results: This research found that SA hydrogel scaffolds containing MgO nanoparticles demonstrated higher osteoblast cell activity compared to SA hydrogel without MgO. The study also found reduced interface tensile strength when PCL-SA coupled scaffolds contained MgO nanoparticles. Conclusion: This study thus suggested that MgO nanoparticle improves the cell viability of SA hydrogel, but it is detrimental for the osseointegration of PCL-SA hydrogel constructs.
One of the most important challenges that face the people in developing countries is the scarcity of natural water resources along with continuous growth of consumption level. A huge deficit in aquifers balance forces the authorities to look for an optimal alternative source to overcome the scarcity of water through seawater desalination. The aim of this research is to use the Value Engineering concept in desalination water station. A survey was conducted to elaborate the most important factors affecting the establishment of the desalination plant. Moreover, several interviews were conducted with experts in the field to crosscheck the validity of the survey results. The findings of field investigation were used in applying the Value-Engineering concept on a selected case study located in Gaza Strip: Deir El Balah desalination plant in order to examine the impact of application of Value Engineering on the project effective cost. It was found that there is direct impact in cost saving of approximately 10.33 % for the project cost in design and tendering stages. It was confirmed that applying Value Engineering is very helpful tool for such projects, which will lead to significant cost saving.
Aims: To determine if (and in which situations) Monte Carlo or asymptotically derived critical values are more robust for the Winsorized t-test. Study Design: A Monte Carlo simulation via FORTRAN 90 was used to test type I and II error properties across 14 unique distributions for various combinations of sample sizes and effect sizes for alpha = .01 and .05. Both Monte Carlo and asymptotically derived sets of critical values were used. Each combination of parameters was used to run 1 million iterations. Place and Duration of Study: Windows PC for a duration of 6.5 days (to obtain results generated per each set of iterations). Methodology: FORTRAN 90 code was used to do the following: For 1 (value) and 10% of n1 + n2, samples were drawn per distribution and Winsorized. Next, t-tests were conducted per the parameters specified above in the study design. Results: Results generally supported the use of the new table of Monte Carlo derived critical values over the classical asymptotically-derived critical values. Conclusion: The Monte Carlo-derived Winsorized critical values are generally preferable to asymptotically derived critical values.
In majority of the countries in the process of development like the Benin, the presence of dumpsite of rubbish can cause pollution of the groundwater. Indeed, the leachate resulting from the seepage of rain water into rubbish can infiltrate and pollute the water table. The evaluation of the infiltration of the leachate was carried out by the geophysical methods of frequential electromagnetism in EM34 and Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT). The electromagnetic map circumscribed the lateral limits of the leachate diffusion and the electromagnetic surveys showed that it infiltrated with a depth of 20m. The two cross sections of electrical resistivity tomography of NS and SW-NE direction made it possible to map the plume of leachate. These results show that the contact water table - leachate is rather discontinuous, the depths of the feather of leachate varying from few meters to 22m for an average static level of 18m. The leachate infiltration occurs with variable depths and is not everywhere in contact with the water table. This discontinuous pollution has been observed in the water quality of the wells. Indeed, the analyses of water samples of the wells showed a great variation of heavy metal pollution in rather close wells
Aim: This study was designed to investigate the effect of Baker’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) inclusion in feed and in drinking water on the performance of broiler birds. Study Design: Yeast in feed and in drinking water were laid out in Completely Randomized Design while yeast in water/feed was a factorial experiment ( 2 factors: level and route of application) with 5 application levels. Each study was replicated 3 times. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at the Teaching and Research Farm of Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria. The study lasted for 8 weeks. Material and Methods: 450 Anak broiler chicks were used for the study. 150 chicks each for yeast in feed, yeast in drinking water and in feed/drinking water. Graded levels (0.5g kg-1l-1, 1.0g kg-1l-1, 1.5g kg-1l-1 and 2.0g kg-1l-1 of feed and drinking water given ad libitum only by day to chicks and through the finisher phase. They were fed broiler starter during the starter period and broiler finisher during the finisher period. They were allowed to run together on deep litter for acclimatization before separation into 5 groups with 3 replications each. Feed was fed by day only while drinking water was given ad libitum. Diets were formulated using Excel feed formulation and feeding models  and analyzed using Association of Official Analytical Chemists  while all data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences . Results: Broiler birds that received yeast supplementation in feed performed better than those with supplementation in water. Supplementation in both feed and water had no additive effect. Best results were in yeast inclusion levels of 1.0g yeast in feed and in drinking water.There was no interaction in yeast fed in water and in feed and therefore has no additive effect. Conclusion: Best results were in yeast inclusion levels of 0.5g and 1.0g. This study recommends 0.5g yeast inclusion in feed.
Aims: To investigate the viability of using second life electric vehicle batteries as ‘buffer packs’ for localized, in home storage of renewable energy. To investigate the potential value of such energy storage in terms of reducing energy bills. To investigate the effect, if any, of social group on energy demand patterns and the subsequent effect on buffer packs. Methodology: Energy data was collected from 15 households and a representative daily demand pattern was formed from each. The availability of solar power was calculated based on standard assumptions regarding UK household installations. The flow of energy between the supply grid, renewable sources (i.e. solar panels) and a 10kWh battery storage system (the ‘buffer pack’) were simulated on a minute by minute basis allowing the savings in power drawn from the grid to be calculated. Results: The simulation has indicated that the use of buffer packs has the potential to greatly increase the utilization of locally generated renewable energy. In some cases the stored energy removed the need to draw any power from the grid. The value of energy storage of this type has been estimated at approximately £250. Conclusion: Buffer packs have substantial potential to increase the degree of utilization of renewable energy sources. However the financial viability of such systems remains questionable, even when utilizing second-life electric vehicle batteries. Further work is recommended to address some of these issues and, in particular, to investigate the effects of seasonal variations in energy use and renewable energy availability on buffer pack applications.
Aims: To improve the nutrient quality of fura, an acha based flour food by adding bambara groundnut flour. Study Design: Product development approach. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi and for six months. Methodology: Acha grain (Digitaria exilis) and Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranean) were cleaned, dry milled and sieved to produce flour. The Bambara groundnut was substituted into acha grain flour (0-25%), mixed with spices (cloves, salt, ginger, red chilly-pepper, black pepper), conditioned (adding water), molded into balls, steamed (5min), boiled (30min), pound and molded to produce fura. The sample were analyzed for chemical (protein, fat, ash, moisture, carbohydrate), sensory (taste, colour, texture, odour) and functional (water absorption, bulk density and foam capacity). Results: The added bambara groundnut increased the protein (6.14 – 9.30%), fat (3.01 – 4.80%), crude fibre (1.20 – 4.4%) and ash (0.50 –1.12%), but decreased the carbohydrate (88.20 – 79.21%) content of the fura with increase in quantity (0 - 25%). The bulk density and foam capacity increased 0.57 – 0.71% and 5.0 – 12.2%, respectively with increase in added bambara groundnut (0 -25%). There was significant increase in the foam capacity. The average means scored of the taste, texture and general acceptability increased 6.4 -7.55, 7.1 – 7.8, and 6.9 – 7.85, respectively, with increase in added Bambara groundnut up to 10% and thereafter decreased significantly. Conclusion: The addition of Bambara groundnut increased the protein, fat, fibre and ash content significantly, p = 0.05, however, it was most acceptable at 10%. At this level of acceptance, the protein, fat and fibre content have been improved by 27.5, 37.8 and 31.5% respectively
An endeavour has been made to analyze the hydrodynamic magnetic fluid based finite journal bearing by making use of finite difference method and MATLAB. Under the assumptions of hydromagnetic lubrication the Reynold’s equation is derived, in turn, which is solved resorting to finite difference method for Sommerfeld boundary conditions. Basically, 3-D representation of the pressure profile obtained using MATLAB underlines the dependence on various parameters. It is needless to say that, this article offers an additional degree of freedom from design point of view. The graphical representation of the results establishes that the performance of the bearing system enhances significantly due to magnetic fluid lubrication. Further, this investigation reveals that the role of eccentricity ratio is a predominant factor for an overall improved performance of the bearing system. Equally crucial is the role of the aspect ratio.
Aims: This research was designed to evaluate the Bisphenol A (BPA) level in five selected canned food products (sweet corn, baked bean, green pea, tomato paste and sardine) on sale in Lagos markets, South West Nigeria. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry and Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine and Faculty of Science, University of Lagos, Nigeria between May 2012 and November 2012. Methodology: The canned food products purchased from Oyingbo and Mushin markets in Lagos, Nigeria and stored at room temperature prior to analysis were carefully opened and oven dried at 60ºC for one week. They were then subjected to solid phase extraction with acetonitrile and derivatization with acetic anhydride. Gas chromatography and mass-spectrometry was carried out on the derivatized samples and compared with BPA standard. Results: BPA in varied concentrations was detected in samples of all the canned products at levels ranging from 0.3 to 4.1μg/L, except for sardine in which BPA was not detected. Conclusion: Consumers’ exposure to BPA through consumption of these canned food products in Lagos area, Nigeria is low, well below the provisional tolerable daily intake of 25 µg/kg of body weight/day established by Health Canada and 50 µg/kg of body weight/day by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the European Food Safety Authority. Consumption of these canned foods therefore is safe without fear of any adverse effect.
Climate extremes threaten livelihoods of smallholder farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa hence the need for adaptations strategies. The objective of the study was to analyze adaptation strategies used by smallholder farmers by examining their knowledge of climate extremes and the perceived effects of climate extremes on agriculture activities. The study was conducted using data generated from 70 randomly selected farm families from 4 villages in Hohoe district, the Volta Region in Ghana, in July 2009. Information sought included household socio-economic characteristics, cropping systems, experience with climate variability and adaptation strategies to weather extremes and climate risk. Descriptive statistics were run on household characteristics, chi-square tests and analysis of variance were used to separate means (P<0.01 and 0.05) using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Results showed that farmers experienced either drought or flood once in every two seasons over the past 3 years. Among the adaptation strategies currently used to reduce the impact of climate extremes were early planting, use of hybrid seed and soil moisture conservation techniques such as within-field ridge construction. Awareness of the climate change phenomena was high among farmers (94%), and the main sources of climate change-related information were radio, television, agricultural extension agents and local experts. Farmers perceived deforestation and forest fires as major factors contributing to climate extremes. Limited use of fertilizer, hybrid seed and lack of planned crop sequences reduced the benefits from the mixed cropping system. Low resource endowment limited effective use of improved and modern crop production technologies. Current adaptation strategies to climate extremes especially drought are not enough to reduce risk and loss in agricultural production. However, improved drainage infrastructure and mulching were reported to increase crop production; important innovations against droughts and floods. We conclude that inputs and modern crop management techniques are key to minimizing the effects of climate extremes on crops. Delivery of high quality weather forecasting information could better prepare farmers and improve planning of seasonal calendars. The study showed close relationships between adaptation capacity and resource endowment and rural infrastructural development. The results are important in planning intervention on climate extremes and rural agricultural development.
Air quality monitoring could potentially improve exposure estimates use in epidemiological studies. Air quality was investigated by monitoring concentrations of 222Rn near the ground at 1 m height and particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 10 μm (PM10) and 2.5 μm (PM2.5). In this study, radon activity outdoor air and total alpha emitters in the atmosphere and its behavior in the environment have been investigated using CR-39 nuclear track detector. Measurements of radon and total alpha were evaluated in five locations of delta Egypt. It was measured continuously by collecting air samples at a height of 1m above the ground level using a high pump with known air flow rate. The mean estimated value of radon activity was 85 Bq/m3 which varies from 20 to 190 Bq/m3 in air 1 m above the ground surface. The highest radon activities were observed in the industrial zones. The total alpha emitters were ranged from 144.1 Bq/m3 to 513.2 Bq/m3 with an average 209 Bq/m3.The calculated average annual effective dose to the general public was calculated and ranged from1.23 mSv/y to1.45 mSv/y. This work was the first nation-wide outdoor radon survey, while previous outdoor measurements were concerning mining and milling sites.
Aims: To fit a time series model to daily Naira-Pound exchange rate series. Study Design: Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average Model. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Mathematics/Computer Science, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Nigeria, from December 2012 to March 2013. Methodology: The correlogram of a non-seasonal difference of the 7-point difference of the data was plotted. On the basis of that plot, a seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (0, 1, 1)x(0, 1, 1)7model was proposed and fitted. This model was compared with a suggestive ARIMA model with a view to establishing SARIMA supremacy. Results: Seasonality of order 7 is evident from the analysis of the differences of the seasonal differences of the original series. All three moving average parameters (i.e. for lags 1, 7 and 8) of the SARIMA model are highly significant, their P-values being 0.0005, 0.0000 and 0.0001 respectively. The model agrees very closely with the observed data. Up to 51% of variations in the data set are explained by the model. The residuals are observed not to be correlated with each other. On the other hand only 8% of the variability in the data set is accounted for by the ARIMA(1, 1, 1) model. Conclusion: The SARIMA model more adequately represents the data set.
This study investigated the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals in commonly consumed roasted meats and smoked fish in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria. The processed foods were grouped as; freshly processed- 6 to 12 hours heat/flame/smoke exposure and long processed- 7 days heat/flame/smoke exposure. Freshly processed (FP) and long processed (LP) beef, fatty beef, chicken, fish and pork samples were purchased from road-side food vendors, wrapped in clean labelled paper foil and taken to the laboratory for analysis. Gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) was used for the evaluation of PAH and atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) was used to determine heavy metals. Our result showed that the total concentration of PAHs in LP food samples were higher when compared to FP samples. Benzo(a)pyrene and other PAHs which are probable human carcinogen, were present in varying concentrations in the samples. Toxic heavy metals such as lead and cadmium were present at varying concentrations in the samples, while mercury was not detected in any of the samples. This study have added to the numerous evidences that processing of food by exposure to heat, flame and smoke encourages the generation of toxic compounds and the nature of the food chain and certain environmental activities can impact negatively on their nutritional content. This therefore places consumers at potential health risk.
Background: Human body tissues have their own speed-of-sound (SOS) by which sound travels through them. Harder materials exhibit greater SOS; thus, SOS through each tissue can provide information regarding its elasticity. For tumor discrimination in clinical medicine, palpation provides important information. However, manual palpation is subjective, whereas SOS data are objective and can be directly used to compare lesions. Methods: A scanning acoustic microscope (SAM) uses ultrasound to image an object from SOS through tissues. We investigated the utility of SAM in imaging gastrointestinal lesions. Results: We visualized the digestive tract as a layered structure and discriminated tumors to a degree comparable with that observed by light microscopy. Areas with greater SOS corresponded to those with higher collagen or muscle fiber concentrations. Cell-poor areas or regions with degeneration demonstrated less SOS than surrounding tissues. Gastric tumors displayed appropriate SOS similar to their original tissues and showed significant differences in SOS between scirrhous carcinomas and well-differentiated medullary carcinomas, scirrhous carcinomas and malignant lymphomas, and leiomyomas and leiomyosarcomas. Conclusions: SAM offered the following benefits over LM: (1) images are acquired in a few minutes without special staining; (2) repeated observations of the same section are possible; (3) high-resolution digital imaging from SOS is comparable to LM; (4) SAM analysis could be helpful in understanding endoscopic ultrasonography imaging; and (5) digitized SOS data could be statistically compared among different stomach lesions.