Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a chronic progressive inflammatory disease of the pancreas. Tropical chronic pancreatitis is a severe form of CP with multifactorial aetiology. In addition to the growing evidence of attributes of genetic factors, the environmental factors may also play crucial roles in the progression and pathogenesis of CP as these factors may interact with the genetic components of individuals and cause aberrations. Oxidative stress related genes may modify the effects of ambient tobacco smoking and alcohol on CP. This review presents an updated account of the contribution of gene-environment interactions on the onset and progression of CP.
Aims: To investigate the effect of aerobic exercise on post menopausal women with major depression. Study Design: A clinical controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Neuropsychiatry, Polaq Hospital-Cairo, between July 2011 and April 2012. Methodology: Thirty postmenopausal women (age range 45-50 years) were selected randomly, clinically diagnosed with major depression and divided into 2 equal groups (A&B). Patients in group A were treated by aerobic exercise and anti depressive drug (paroxetine; 20mg/day), patients in group B were treated by anti depressive drug (paroxetine; 20mg/day). The rate of depression was measured by Hamilton depression scale before and after the treatment program. Results: Patients in group A showed highly signiï¬cant changes in depression intensity (P=.0001) after the treatment program with percentage of improvement was 6.27%. Patients in group B showed highly signiï¬cant changes in depression intensity (P=.001) with percentage of improvement was 5.35%. There were highly signiï¬cant changes between both groups (P=.002). Conclusion: Aerobic exercise with antidepressant is important to improve depression in post menopausal women than antidepressive drug alone.
Aim: Is to extend our study on the number of locally available sorbents that can be used in oil/chemical spill clean-up. Study Design: Carbonized and uncarbonized sorbents were separately encased in a sac like booms of 2cm x 2cm x 1cm dimension and used to mop up spills of different hydrocarbons. Place and Duration of Study: Carbonization of sorbents was carried out at Federal Science Equipment Development Institute Enugu in Enugu State, Nigeria while the rest was done at Mechanical Engineering workshop, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, Anambra State Nigeria between March –May 2011. Methodology: Activated and unactivated powders of protein wastes (feather, goat hair) and cellulosic wastes (coco-nut husk, corn-cob), separated into two particles sizes of 325µm and 625µm were used to mop up spilt crude oil, diesel, kerosene and petrol and each were allowed a contact time of 30, 60, 90 and 120 mins contact time before they were hung in air to drain unabsorbed liquids. Recovery was carried by mere pressing, differences in weight were obtained and used for calculation of % absorption, recovery and retention. Results: It was observed that all the sorbents mopped up appreciable quantities of all the sorbates within an average of 90mins contact time. Large volumes of the hydrocarbon liquids were recovered and retained, sorbates were mopped as- crude oil > diesel > kerosene > petrol, proteinous sorbents with oleophilic and aquaphobic properties absorbed more of all the hydrocarbon liquids than cellulosic sorbent at any particle size and contact time, although both showed high sorption capacity for the sorbates. Particle size of sorbents, activation, contact time, molecular chain length and viscosity of sorbates determined the amount of hydrocarbon absorbed/adsorbed, recovered or retained. The amount of residual leachable diesel in the sorbent was below 3%. Conclusion: Sorbents studied showed high sorption capacity for the sorbates.
From existence of analogies between problems of integrating Linear differential equations (LDE) in quadratures and solution to algebraic equations in radicals and based on studying properties of the latter in the article we have found one special differential equation. By studying characteristic equation of Riccati type and linking it to an algebraic equation we have obtained a recurrent LDE with variable coefficients and have established its properties.
Aim: A 56 days feeding trial was conducted with 225 Marshal Broiler chicks to evaluate the effect of activated coconut charcoal on their growth performance and nutrient digestibility. Study Design: The design of the experiment was completely randomized design (CRD). Place and Duration of Study: Poultry unit of the Teaching and Research Farm of the Department of Animal Production, School of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology, Federal University of Technology Minna, Niger State, between September- October 2011. Methodology: The birds were randomly allocated into five dietary treatments designated as T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5 containing 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 % of activated coconut shell charcoal meal respectively. Each treatment had three replicates with 15 birds in each replicate. The birds were fed ad libitun. Data were collected on body weight, feed intake, body weight gain; feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio and nutrient digestibility were calculated. The starter phase covered week 0-4 and the finisher phase from week 5-8. Results: The result showed that feed intake and feed conversion ratio values were (P<0.05) different at the starter phase. The result of the finisher phase revealed (P<0.05) differences in the values of mean final body weight, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio. Also high percentage mortality was observed in birds fed 2% activated coconut charcoal meal. The result of the nutrient digestibility showed no (P>0.05) difference in dry matter, crude protein, ether extract and nitrogen free extract. However, (P<0.05) differences were observed in the digestibility of crude fibre and ash values. Conclusion: It was concluded that activated coconut shell charcoal supplementation at 2% inclusion at the starter phase increased feed intake and final body weight. However, at the finisher phase activated coconut shell charcoal can be included up to 0.05% inclusion level for better performance.
Aims: The influence of extrusion cooking variables on the residence time and throughput of a single screw extruder were investigated using blends of African yam bean (AYB) and cassava flour. The main purpose was to optimize the throughput and residence time of AYB/cassava extrusion using three operating variables (screw speed (SS), feed moisture content (MC) and feed composition (FC)). Study Design: African yam bean and cassava tubers were processed into flours. A central composite design (CCD) was used to determine the feed moisture content, feed composition and the screw speed used in the operation. Place and Duration of Study: The cassava tubers were obtained from National Research Institute, Umudike Abia State, the AYB from a local market in Abia State Nigeria and the extrusion work was done at Federal Polytechnic Mubi Adamawa State Nigeria. Methodology: Twenty extrusion runs were conducted with eight (23) factorial, six star points and six central points. The throughput (TP) and residence time (RT) were determined using standard procedures. Data obtained were subjected to response surface analysis (RSA) and ANOVA. Results: The results of the response surface regression of TP showed that SS was highly significant in the linear, quadratic and interactive effects. The critical throughput values were 0.098Kg/min for combination of screw speed and moisture content and 0.084Kg/min for combination of feed composition and moisture content variables. The residence time increased as the moisture content and screw speed decreased. The critical residence time values of 59.94s and 28.63s were obtained. Conclusion: The results confirmed that residence time was inversely proportional to screw speed and moisture content. The data obtained from the study could be used for control of product characteristics and possible projection for the commercial production of extruded blends of African yam bean and cassava flour using a single screw extruder.
Aims: This research is aimed at determination of heavy metals concentrations in water (surface and ground) and aquatic macrophyte and to compare the values with the standard recommendations. Study Design: Water (surface and ground) and aquatic macrophyte (Ceratophyllum demersum) were analyzed for heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Mn, Cr, Zn, Hg, Pb, Cd, Ni, and V) content. Surface water was collected from six sampling sites in the dry and rainy seasons of years 2008 and 2009. Ground water was also collected from six sampling sites in the dry and rainy seasons of years 2008 and 2009. Aquatic macrophyte was collected from two sampling sites in the dry and rainy seasons of years 2008 and 2009. Place and Duration of Study: Samples were collected from Agbabu bitumen deposit area, Western Nigeria, in the dry and rainy seasons of years 2008 and 2009 Methodology: Analysis was carried out using atomic absorption spectrometry. Results: In dry season of 2008, surface and ground water in all sampling stations, except one, had concentrations of Cr and Mn that were higher than WHO recommendations for potable water, which is 0.05ppm and 0.01ppm respectively. The mean concentrations of Fe and Ni were also higher than WHO recommendations in most of the water samples examined. Fe had the highest mean concentration in aquatic plant (Ceratophyllum demersum) in the dry and rainy season of years 2008 and 2009. Bio-concentration Factor (BCF) of metals in Ceratophyllum demersum were as high as 3620.00 (Zn-dry season 2009), showing that it can be used in phytoremediation of surface water polluted with heavy metals. Analysis of variance and multiple comparison of concentration of Cr and Mn in surface and ground water with SPSS 17 (α = .05) showed no statistically significant differences between the sampling points which shows that Cr and Mn in the study must have originated from similar sources. Conclusions: The study area presently has been impacted by the presence of bitumen. Data available in this study can be used as baseline for monitoring of metal contamination at Agbabu bitumen deposit area.
Aims: This study was conducted to assess the risks connected to effluents released by laboratories performing biomedical analyses in four sanitary training units of Abomey Calavi and Sô-Ava area in Benin. Study Design: It is a transversal and analytical study. Duration of Study: March 2nd to August 31st, 2010. Methodology: The data were obtained based on an observation guide, by interviewing the participants and by analyzing the discharged liquid of laboratories as well as the ground waters (wells, drillings) situated near pits and other places used for discharging biomedical effluents. Results: The results revealed a mismanagement of biomedical effluents. The mean values of pH ranged from 7.17 to 8.83. The conductivity exceeded the acceptable limits in 75% of the cases (2000 to 4260 µS / cm). The COD of sewage rose from 201 to 3400 mg/L and showed strong correlation with the BOD5 (r2=0.998) whose values ranged between 150 and 1700 mg/L. The contents in nitrogen (38.4 - 97.5 mg/L) and in phosphates (11.8 to 30 mg/L) exceeded the standards. Besides, significant concentrations of faecal Coliforms exceeding 100x103 UFC / 100mL were recorded in 75 % of the analyzed effluents samples. This explains the ineffectiveness of the decontamination procedure carried out by the laboratory staff. The examination of well waters and water from the drillings situated near pits serving laboratories showed high turbidity (20 to 91,1 NTU), low rates of dissolved oxygen (< 5mg/L) and indications of bacterial contamination (160 UFC of Escherichia coli / 100mL). Conclusion: This study suggests a connection between biomedical activities and groundwater pollution. This issue poses a real problem of public health because of the infectious, toxic and eco-toxic risks for the population and it is important to find an effective solution.
This paper considers a condition-based maintenance optimization for continuously degrading systems under continuous noise response in terms of sound pressure level monitoring. After maintenance, the states of the system are randomly distributed with residual damage. An optimization technique is used to solve a preventive maintenance problem for cracked gear tooth system. In this work, the situations where cracked gear tooth system has several ranges of performance levels are considered. To enhance cracked gear tooth system availability or (reliability), possible schedule preventive maintenance actions are performed and affect strongly the effective age. Moreover, the technique is used to generate an optimal sequence of maintenance actions providing system working with the desired level of availability or (reliability) during its lifetime with minimal maintenance cost rate. A single stage gearbox is used for this study, where multi-time tests were carried on healthy and faulty gearboxes individually. The measured sound pressure levels were collected where hazard lifetime (LT) was determined at failure based on the Weibull distribution with assured reliability. The results indicate that the saving expected costs of either health or faulty gearbox, the basic cost, availability; and maintenance cost and availability savings have been estimated. On the other hand, the operating time between failure and optimum points for basic cost, availability and maintenance cost and availability savings are all considered.
Organic nonlinear optical single crystals of 4-methoxy benzoin were grown by slow evaporation technique. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that 4-methoxy benzoin single crystals belong to orthorhombic crystal system with a space group Pca21.Optical absorption range of the grown crystal was measured by UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer. The optical absorbance spectrum of 4-methoxy benzoin crystal has been used to calculate the optical band gap (Eg), absorption coefficient (α), refractive index (n), and the real (εr) and imaginary (εi) components of the dielectric constant. The DC electrical conductivity measurements were carried out for the crystals using the conventional two – probe technique. The conductivity study indicates that the DC conductivity of the samples increase with the increase in temperature. The activation energies were also calculated from DC conductivity studies. Photoconductivity measurements carried out on the grown crystal reveal the negative photoconducting nature.
Cherenkov radiation is an electromagnetic Radiation that occurs in different medium depending on the physical properties of the medium”. The sufficient scientific condition for the phenomenon to be occurred is that the velocity of charged particles moving with should be greater than that of the electromagnetic radiation there (generally speaking in most cases this Radiation is in the UV range of emission depending on the particles velocity and yet again the properties of the medium”). In this paper Cherenkov effect considered in the ionospheric E layer plasma and it showed that the velocity of charged particles in this plasma is greater than that of the phase velocity of electromagnetic radiation. Then the relation between Cherenkov frequency and the height and temperature of this plasma studied. Also the Cherenkov angle for the oxygen ion that emits Cherenkov radiation is calculated. In this plasma as an important wave we considered only the oxygen-ion wave.
Biostratigraphic work using palynology was undertaken in order to re-assess the lithofacies, chronostratigraphy and paleoenvironment of deposition of sediments in Murshe-1 well, Bornu Basin, northeastern Nigeria. Two hundred and ninety ditch cutting samples obtained from the exploratory well Murshe-1 located in Bornu Basin were used for lithologiacal description. Twenty one (21) samples were selected at 27.4m interval for palynological analysis. The samples were analyzed under microscope for lithologic and palynological description. The latter were taken through sediment digestion and floatation of macerals. Various lithofacies relationship is present such as black fissile shale, sandy shale, intercalated fissile shale with gypsum, conglomeratic sandstone, mudstone and claystone; while five palynological zones are established. The palynological zones established are Triorites africaensis assemblage zone 1 characterized by the co-occurrence of Classopollis brasiliensis, Triorites africaensis, and Retimonocolpites sp; dated Turonian. Zone 2 is dated Senonian to Campanian based on the assemblage of Syncolporites sp, Milfordia sp, Mauritiidites crassibaculatus, and Aequitridites sp. The Spinizonocolpites baculatus assemblage zone 3 is defined by the co-occurrence of Longapertites marginatus, Periretisyncolpites sp, Trichotomosulcites sp, Auriculiidites sp, Foveotriletes margaritae, Spinizonocolpites baculatus, Monocolpites marginatus, Striatopollis bellus and Retidiporites magdalenensis; depictive of Maastrichian age. The Proxapertites cursus assemblage zone 4, dated Paleocene is distinguished from the older Maastrichian sediment based on the paucity of palynomorphs and the appearance of Verrutricolporites sp. Zone 5 is dated Eocene-Younger based on the co-occurrence of Monoporites annulatus, Retibrevitricolporites protrudens, Longapertites vernendenburgi and Lycopodium phlegmaria.
The control of insect pests in agriculture, forestry, stores, animal husbandry, poultry and in human hygiene are still considered a challenge. Widespread use of chemical pesticides represents a potential risk to human and the environment. Therefore, the search for alternative strategies in pest control is timely to overcome this problem. Desirable are preparations that exhibit new modes of actions and impair processes that are rather specific to the pest in order to be combated. In the last twenty five years, much attention has been devoted to natural pest control agents. One of the most important groups among them are plant based active substances or mixtures of substances commonly known as ‘botanicals’. Such natural products typically occur as cocktails of metabolically related compounds with differing activity/spectrum towards different insects. The present paper is a mini review presenting an updated account of biopesticidal properties of extracts from two different plant species that could be developed as a potential substitute to the chemical pesticides.