Aims: Study on the antimicrobial resistance pattern and plasmid screening of some clinical strains of Escherichia coli isolated from urine of some urinary tract infection out patients. Study design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: General hospital Lagos Island, Lagos, Nigeria, between March 2009 and August 2009. Methodology: Fifty resistant strains of E. coli were isolated by standard procedures from 96 clinical specimens. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing and plasmid screening were done on the strains. Followed by plasmid isolation and gene transfer experiment. plasmid curing of the resistant plasmid was also carried out. Results: Out of 96 samples screened only 50 (52.1%) yielded clinical isolates of E. coli. Among the various classes of antibiotic tested, high resistance was found with amoxycillin (100%), followed by tetracycline (98%), and augmentin (98%), while nitrofurantoin, ceftriaxone and ofloxacin being the most potent with (90%), (58%), (58%), sensitivity respectively. All the strains that were resistant to any antimicrobial agent were also resistant to amoxycillin. 34.4% of the isolates with multiple antimicrobial resistant haboured single plasmids ranging in sizes from 4.5kb to 4.8kb. Transformation experiment revealed that six of these resistant strains carried a common R-plasmid of size 4.8kb. Plasmid determined resistance to tetracycline was identified.
Conclusion: This study has highlighted the emergence of multidrug resistance R-plasmids among Escherichia coli causing urinary tract infections in Nigeria. There is a high level of resistance to many antimicrobials that are frequently used in Nigeria. The uncontrolled use of antibiotics has contributed largely to this situation. Thus the government should make considerable effort to establish an antibiotic policy for the country.
Levels of noise generated from mechanic villages within Kaduna metropolis, (Nigeria) were measured in the present study. Existing noise generation sources and analysis were carried out. Noise level (maximum of 120dB) was measured at these sites. Noise dose of 104.30% and hearing deterioration index of 55.15 were obtained. It is observed that the noise generated at these sites is a mixture of low and high frequencies. This is capable of causing temporary and permanent deafness in addition to inflict high level of interference of speech as well as capable of causing increase in the rate of heartbeat. It is also observed that the noise generated by these sources is aperiodic, that is, not sinusoidal, they are cumulative and can lead to step waves.
Twenty-seven boreholes in Umuahia South Local Government Area were studied using standard field and laboratory techniques of water resource investigation to assess the quality status of groundwater in the area. This was done to appraise the suitability of the water for domestic uses. Na+ and Ca++ dominate the cations with average values of 11.6mg/l and 5.22mg/l respectively, while HCO3- and Cl- dominate the anions and show respective mean values of 55.6mg/l and 15.6 mg/l. The low Cl- concentration shows that the salt water contamination in the adjacent coastal aquifers of the Niger Delta has not reached Umuahia, which is more hinterland. The water is low in dissolved constituents. However, the acidic status of the water (pH values from 4.39 to 6.56) calls for treatment. Treatment is also needed for iron in boreholes with concentration more than 0.3 mg/l. These treatments would make the water potable for drinking and other domestic purposes with respect to the parameters analysed. The major source of the ions in the water includes mineral assemblage in the rocks, geochemical processes operating within the groundwater system, as well as atmospheric precipitation. Exploitation of water from different depths, local geochemical processes in the aquifer, as well as concentration of elements in boreholes located in areas of low hydraulic heads are some of the reasons for haphazard variations in the geochemical parameters from one borehole to another.
The suitability of a Nigerian bentonitic (Ubakala) clay material to be used as drilling mud for oil well drilling was investigated, with Wyoming bentonite being used as a standard. Particle size distribution, Cation Exchange Capacity of the sample were determined and compared. X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence of the samples were also determined. Rheological properties of the samples were determined using a rheometer (OFITE model 900 viscometer). Properties of the local clay improved appreciably when beneficiated with Carboxyl Methyl Cellulose (CMC), Poly Anionic Cellulose-Regular (PAC-R) and Sodium Carbonate (Na2CO3). The best result which came close to the properties of Wyoming clay was Ubakala mud at 24.5g /350ml of water beneficiated with 2g CMC and 1.5g Sodium Carbonate (Na2CO3). The Plastic Viscosity improved by about 1207%. This study indicates that Ubakala clay has a good potential for drilling purposes when beneficiated appropriately.
Production rate from oil fields is reduced due to various parameters with time. So it is necessary to use some methods to compensate the reduction of production rate. Artificial lift refers to use of artificial means to increase the flow of liquids, such as crude oil or water, from a production well and is the most suitable way to increase production rate. It is achieved by the reduction of downhole pressure. Artificial lift includes five methods and it is very important to select the best method, considering the field conditions. In this paper, the best artificial lift is selected, using multiple criteria decision making models, such as; Elimination Et Choix Traduisant He realite (ELECTRE). For this reason, 25 effective field parameters were used from the Malekoh oil field for analyzing. Comparing the obtained results from the multiple criteria decision making methods, the best artificial lift method in the corresponding field was selected.
A Geoelectric survey involving Vertical Electrical Sounding was carried out with the aim of using the results to delineate aquifer and assess its sustenance for adequate water supply for irrigation work in Fadama parts of some villages in Igabi Local Government Area, Kaduna state, Nigeria. The data were acquired with symmetric Schlumberger configuration at stations chosen across the study area. The acquired data were inverted with 1D Earth Imager iterative software. The interpreted results suggest four geoelectric layers. From their equivalent geologic/lithologic units, the weathered and the underlain fractured basement, which are characterized with relatively low resistivity values (14 to 217â„¦m), were considered as the aquiferous layers of the study area. Suitable sites for construction of pump-fitted wells were suggested based on thickness of the aquiferous layers. On assessment of the groundwater from estimated aquifer parameters, the well yield will serve the intended irrigation purpose.
Geoelectric investigation for underground water in some part of Ohafia was done using the Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) method. Twenty vertical electrical sounding data were acquired within the locations in the study area. These were used in delineating the geoelectric sections. The study was carried out using the Schlumberger electrode configuration and computer-aided Resist software method of interpretation was adopted. The interpretation of the VES data obtained from the study area within the geology terrain often referred to as sedimentary environment indicates that the area around VES stations 12, 13, 10 and 8 have been chosen as the most viable locations for the development of a water borehole for groundwater resources in the study area. The thickness and resistivity of the aquifers at these VES stations, which shows very good potential for groundwater, indicates that VES 12 has the highest aquifer thickness depth of 494.9m. The geologic sections of some VES stations were delineated and this also corroborated with the geological description of the area.
Nigeria is ranked the seventh largest exporter of crude oil in the world. On a daily basis, it produces over two million barrels of crude Oil from hundreds of Oil wells drilled in the Niger Delta area. Not a single of these Oil wells are drilled without the use of Bentonite. Bentonite is a clay powder that is mixed with water (drilling mud) and forced through a drilling string into the wellbore during drilling operations in order to float and lift drilled cuttings out of the well, control the down-hole temperature, lubricate drilling bit, prevent corrosion and stabilize the wall of the hole from collapsing among other things. A very large sum of money is being spent by the Oil companies operating in Nigeria on the importation of millions of tons of Bentonite from overseas for Oil well drilling. Nigeria has large reserve of Bentonitic clay deposit that if properly utilized will go a long way in supporting the Oil well drilling demand in the country. This will translate into retaining the large sum of money sent overseas for importation of foreign Bentonite, create employment opportunities, bring external investment and boost the country’s economy. Though the Bentonite deposits studied are Ca-based, it can be beneficiated to a level that is comparable with the standard compliance. This study has beneficiated local Bentonitic clay using Na2CO3 as the beneficiating agent and ion exchange as the procedure. The rheological properties of the beneficiated clay were determined together with that of a standard commercial Bentonite and compared with the United State API grade and European OCMA standard for complience. The recorded values for viscosity at 600rpm, yield, filtration, fineness and moisture content of the locally beneficiated Bentonitic clay and the standard commercial Bentonite are 35, 1 -6, <15, 2.8%, 8% and 27, 2.3, <15, 3.7%, 12%, respectively. While these values for the United State API grade and the European OCMA standards are ≥30,≤3, ≤15, ≤4%, ≤13% and ≥30, ≤6, ≤16, ≤2.5%, ≤13%, respectively. This indicates that the local Bentonite reserve can be beneficiated using Na2CO3 as beneficiating agent and ion exchange as beneficiating procedure to a level that is even a little better than the studied standard commercial Bentonite also studied.