Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology (ISSN:&nbsp;2457-1024)</strong> is dedicated to publish research papers, reviews, case studies and short communications from all disciplines of science and technology. By not excluding papers on the basis of subject area, CJAST facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated.</p> en-US (Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology) (Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology) Tue, 15 Sep 2020 07:03:12 +0000 OJS 60 Integrated Performance of Fenton Process and Filtration (Activated Charcoal and Sand) for Textile Wastewater Treatment <p>Textile effluents contain complex characteristics with different physicochemical parameters and colorful dye. It is difficult to remove all types of pollutant using a specific treatment process. In this study adsorption filtration alone then Fenton process with sand-gravel mixed filtration and activated charcoal filtration was applied. Fenton process is very effective process for Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Dissolve Organic Carbon (DOC) removal. And Activated carbon is a suitable adsorbent for dye removal. Physicochemical parameters like, COD, DOC, Total Dissolve Solid (TDS), Dissolve Oxygen (DO), Electric conductivity (EC), and pH was measured before and after the treatment process. After filtration by adsorbent filter all the parameter reduced than raw effluent but when Fenton process with sand filtration and activated charcoal filtration was applied all the parameter drastically changed than before. DO level was increased after only adsorption filtration process, Fenton and normal sand filtration process, Fenton, and adsorbent filtration process as 1.8 mg/l&lt; 5 mg/l &lt; 6.19 mg/l &lt; 6 mg/l, respectively. Maximum level of EC (61.33%), TDS (82.75%), BOD (92%), COD (80%), DOC (97.57%), and color (78.57%) was decrease after using Fenton process with Activated carbon filtration process than other treatment process, which was within Bangladesh standard value. This result represents the advantage of using Fenton process with adsorption filtration to treat textile effluent. Moreover, this process is easily operating, practical and environment friendly for using in industrial scale.</p> Md. Sabbir Hossain, Protima Sarker, Md. Shiblur Rahaman, Md. Khabir Uddin ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 16 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Influence of Number of Suckers in Ratoon Crop on Yield and Quality of Malbhog (AAB) Banana <p>An experiment was carried out at instructional cum experimental farm, Department of Horticulture, Biswanath College of Agriculture, Assam Agricultural University, Biswanath Chariali to study the effect of number of suckers per hill on yield and quality of banana cv. Malbhog (AAB) in ratoon crop by maintaining different numbers of suckers per hill as-T<sub>1</sub> (one sucker per hill), T<sub>2 </sub>(two suckers per hill), T<sub>3</sub> (three suckers per hill), and T<sub>4</sub> (four suckers per hill). Plants for each treatment were planted in two spacing as S<sub>1 </sub>(2.1 m x 2.1 m) and S<sub>2</sub> (2.5 m x 2.5 m). One treatment with recommended package of practice (one sucker retain with mother plant at shooting) was also included in the experiment as control. The treatment combinations were laid out in factorial Randomized Block Design with three replications. Finger length (15.22 cm), finger girth (12.05 cm), finger volume (84.44cc) and finger weight (83.65 g), number of fingers (92.75/bunch), hands (7.27/bunch), bunch weight (9.41 kg/bunch and yield (15.05 t/ha), were highest in S<sub>2</sub>T<sub>1 </sub>(2 suckers per hill in 2.5 m x 2.5 m spacing). Lowest duration from harvesting of first crop to harvesting of first ratoon crop (68.50 days) observed in S<sub>2</sub>T<sub>1</sub>. Yield of banana was significantly lower in wider spacing of 2.5 m x 2.5 m (S<sub>2</sub>) than S<sub>1</sub> (2.1 m x 2.1 m). There was no significant effect on quality attributing parameters of fingers.</p> Rupshree Borah, D. N. Hazarika, Supriya Langthasa, Hemanga Das ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 16 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Diversification Strategies among Rural Farm Family Households in Different Agro-climatic Zones of J&K Union Territory, India <p><strong>Aims: </strong>The diversification of a portfolio is an alternative strategy for households to minimize their income variability and to ensure a minimum level of income.</p> <p><strong>Study Design: </strong>Multi-stage sampling, binary logistic regression and logit regression design were used for the study.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study: </strong>The study was conducted in Jammu &amp; Kashmir State (Union Territory) in the year of 2016-17 with a total sample size of 630 farming families drawn from the four agro-ecological zones.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>From each selected villages, 15 farming families were drawn randomly without replacement and out of 15 farm families only 10 families were retained for analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>An average gross income from on-farm enterprise was Rs. 77,623 per annum and from off-farm activities the average income was Rs. 1,17,643 per annum. Education, size of family members and fragmented land holdings were the push factors which motivated the farming family households to diversify towards other activities.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The study further suggested that there is a need to develop education and skill development training among the farm family households, as it will surely provide a positive impact on the ability to diversify their other livelihood options.</p> Rakesh Nanda, A. K. Singh, Rajinder Peshin, L. K. Sharma, Parvani Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 18 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Rice Husk Ash Pozzolan on the Mechanical and Physical Properties of Cement Matrix Composites <p>The present study aims to reduce the use of cement and encourage the utilization of plant biomass. &nbsp;The rice husk ash (loading: 2, 6, 10, 15, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 and 50%) was used as a cement substitute.&nbsp; The effects of rice husk ash on the physical and mechanical properties of cement matrix composite was investigated. The results of this study show a drop in compressive strength of 19.75 to 5.10 between M0 and MR50 with a remarkable value of 17.02MPa at 10% (MR10). Likewise, we have a variation of the flexural strength from 2.96 to 0.47 between M0 and MR50 with a remarkable value of 1.87 at 10% (MR10). The material MR10 is light and can be used as a filling element.</p> Acodji V. Pamphile, Doko K. Valéry, Olodo E. T. Emmanuel, Datchossa Tiambo Abbas ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 15 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Entrepreneurial Behavior of Sericulture Farmers in Tamil Nadu <p>Sericulture is an important agro based cottage industry and labor intensive sector which combines activity of both sericulture and industry. Farmers engage in sericulture enterprise to gain income with less risk. Mulberry, silk worm and cocoon production are the series of activities which needs entrepreneurial skills to achieve profits. This study attempted to analyze the entrepreneurial behavior of the sericulture farmers of Tamil Nadu and the major factors influencing their behavior. Sericulture has been widely practiced in Dharmapuri district and 80 sample farmers were selected based on proportionate random sampling method from three blocks. The Entrepreneurial behavior components like self-effectiveness, opportunity detector, planning ability, leadership ability, risk bearing ability, social involvement and creativity of farmers were measured using seven point likert scale and reliability of data tested by Cronbach's alpha. The findings suggested that the sample farmers had higher social involvement followed by risk bearing ability, self-effectiveness, opportunity detector and planning ability. Leadership ability and creativity has lowest mean scores indicating that sample farmers are less confident in these dimensions. Based on the overall scores majority of the sample farmers were categorized under medium entrepreneurship behavior. Age and experience in sericulture farming are the major factors significantly influenced the entrepreneurial behavior followed by education, participation in associations and source of information in that order. Hence training programmes on technology up gradation, awareness regarding new technologies and latest rearing methods need to be given to the sericulture entrepreneurs to improve their entrepreneurship behavior.</p> S. Nandhini, A. Rohini, D. Murugananthi, V. Anandhi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 16 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Variable Effects of Silicon on Salt Tolerant Indices in Rice Genotypes at Seedling Stage <p>Silicon (Si) is known to improve salt tolerance in rice. However, the correlation of silicon with different physiological and biochemical indices of salt tolerance is not properly understood. Two rice genotypes with different silicon accumulation ability were evaluated along with two standard checks in response to 10 dS/m salinity stress (NaCl) and external Si source (1mM) during their seedling stage. All evaluated genotypes showed an evident decrease in biomass and chlorophyll content under salinity stress, while reporting an enhances in Si accumulation, Na<sup>+</sup>/K<sup>+</sup> ratio, proline, electrolyte leakage, lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide, and antioxidant activities. The external Si supplementation significantly improved rice tolerance to salinity through increased Si content, low Na<sup>+</sup>/K<sup>+</sup> ratio, better osmolyte production, reduced membrane permeability, and improved antioxidant enzyme activities. Multivariate factor analysis with principal component factor statistically correlates and visualizes silicon accumulation with salt tolerance indices. The Hierarchical clustering in rice obtained based on the study of salt tolerance indices, distinguishes genotypes with different treatments into three clusters. In conclusion, the clustering grouped salt-tolerant Var.Lunishree and salt stress high silicon accumulating Var.Swarna together validates silicon mitigating effect on salinity in rice.</p> Rinny Swain, Surabhika Panda, Gyana Ranjan Rout ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 17 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Doubling Farmers’ Income on Area, Production and Productivity of Pulses in India <p>India is the largest producer and consumer of pulses in the world contributing around 25-28% of the total global production. The increasing demand and supply gap of pulses has led to an increasing trend in their import by India. In view of this gap, one of the strategies for “Doubling Farmers’ Income by 2022” was to enhance area, production and productivity of pulses in India by incentivizing the farmers with right price. Hence an attempt has been made in this study to analyze the growth of pulses over a period of time i.e. from 1980-81 to 2017-18 in India using secondary data. The average annual growth rates and percentages were used as tools to carry out analysis. The results revealed that area, production and productivity of total pulses was positive but indicating a slow growth of 1.36 per cent, 3.29 per cent and 2.04 per cent respectively per annum. Due to steep hike in Minimum Support Price (MSP) during 2015-16, it was noticed that area, production and yield have recorded higher growth than previous years. The percentage change in area, production and productivity for major pulses during three periods indicated that there was a marginal increase in area and production of gram in major producing states and the same trend was noticed in red gram and black gram. It was also observed that in some of the states the growth in period- III for major pulses was higher compared to period-II. Policy implications or lessons learned are missing!</p> S. B. Ramya Lakshmi, Priyanka Patra, K. C. Gummagolmath ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 18 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Role of Farmer Producer Organization Post COVID in Marketing of Perishables in Karnataka <p>The COVID-19 pandemic started in India during first week of March has infected people and taken its toll. As a result of this pandemic, the entire Nation went into lockdown from March 22<sup>nd</sup> 2020 to protect people’s life. The lockdown has hit all the sectors of the economy including agriculture resulting in disruption of business, movements, lifestyles, health and employment.&nbsp; Agriculture being backbone of the Country is affected both on backward and forward linkages of the supply chain. In this context, a study of Farmer Producer Organizations (FPO) primarily dealing in horticulture commodities in Karnataka was undertaken with an objective to understand their role in addressing the challenges in supply chain. Of the 100 FPO’s promoted by Department of Horticulture, 40 FPO’s were involved in output business post COVID-19 pandemic of which 23 FPO’s were chosen for the study. As field surveys were not possible due to the pandemic, information was elicited through telephonic interview of Chief Executive Officers of the FPO’s. FPOs in the process on selling diverse commodities to consumer door step faced challenges with respect to transport, payment, logistics and working capital. Though FPOs faced several challenges, several of them found new approaches to deal with the situation. The findings from the study are summarized and recommendations are made to create an enabling environment for FPO’s to do business more effectively and to equip them to deal with the situation.</p> G. Basavaraj, Ashok S. Alur, Itigi Prabhakar, M. Manjunath, G. Shashibhushana, S. Kumar, K. J. Parameshwarappa ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 18 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Role of Precision Farming Development Center (PFDC) Hyderabad in Plasticulture <p>The use of plastics in horticulture has made considerable headway during the last decade. We are aware that plastics contribute from planting to post harvest handling and processing in many fruit crops. Plastic is used at each and every stage of horticultural life cycle right from seeds packaging, planting, propagation, mulching, irrigation, harvesting, fruit packing and preservation. The application of plastics in agriculture sector is popularly known as Plasticulture. India produces about 5 million tons of plastics annually and use about 0.35 million tons in agriculture. Plastics are used in greenhouses to promote growth and production, mulching to suppress weeds and maintain soil temperature and moisture as well as in containers for seedling and soil solarization to reduce pest and diseases. The efficient use of plastics in agricultural and horticultural operations are utilized by PFDC Hyderabad. The plasticulture operations were performed and demonstrated by research trials by selecting suitable crops under polyhouse and shade nets. Use of drip irrigations system and sprinkler irrigation system with suitable irrigation scheduling and fertigation, demonstrating performance of agricultural and horticultural crops under plastic mulch sheets. The present study aims to determine the role of precision farming development center (PFDC) Hyderabad in plasticulture.</p> Ibrahim Kaleel, M. Uma Devi, K. Chaitanya, B. Srinu, . Deepika ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 18 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Determinants of Mobile Fintech Uptake in Kenyan Microfinance Sector <p>The Kenyan microfinance sector faces many challenges such as high operation costs, increased credit risk, low visibility and poor understanding of emerging technology opportunities and risks among others. These problems are persistent due to low levels of innovation and limited uptake of digital financial technologies. This research aimed to identify the determinants that influence uptake of mobile fintech and propose an appropriate model for uptake of mobile fintech within the sector. A descriptive survey of all 30 Microfinance institutions registered with Association of Microfinance Institutions (AMFI) 2018 in Kenya was carried out. Data was collected using questionnaires from 120 respondents. Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Based on correlation model, this study established that technology factors (r=0.862, <em>P</em>&lt;.05), environmental characteristics (r=0.387, <em>P</em>&lt;.05) and organizational factors (r=0.256, <em>P</em>&lt;.05) have a strong influence on the uptake of mobile fintech. Using regression model, technology factors (β=.563,<em> P</em>&lt;.05), organizational factors (β=.281, <em>P</em>&lt;.05) and environmental characteristics (β=.562, <em>P</em>&lt;.05) all have positive and significant influence on uptake of mobile fintech. These factors include technology availability, perceived technology benefits, organization size, resources availability, and competition, regulatory and legal environment among others. Uptake of mobile fintech was found to reduce operation costs and improve business operations efficiency. Understanding of the factors derived in this study will help microfinance institutions, software developers and policy makers as they develop strategies directed at promoting successful implementation of mobile fintech.</p> Jecinta Muthoni Ndungu, Christopher A. Moturi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 19 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Title Analyzing the Effect of Different Doses of Cycocel and Maleic Hydrazide on Growth and Flowering of Tagetes erecta L. cv. Pusa Narangi Gainda (African Marigold) <p>An experiment was carried out to access the effect of different doses of Cycocel and Maleic hydrazide on growth and flowering of African marigold (<em>Tagetes erecta</em> L.) cv. Pusa narangi gainda at Horticultural Research Center (HRC) of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology, Modipuram, Meerut, Uttar Pradesh during the year 2019-2020. The investigation was laid out in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with nine treatments and three replications. The results indicated that among the treatments, minimum plant height with the application of MH 250 ppm (57.03 cm), plant spread of east to west (45.17 cm), plant spread north to south (46.40 cm), the number&nbsp; of branches per plant (37.61), Days taken to first flower bud initiation (54.60 days), days has taken to opening of first flower (67.21 days), days have taken to opening of 50% flowering (83.72 days), duration of flowering (78.22 days), The study revealed that the number of branches and flowering duration significant higher than control and other treatment the height of plant also decrease.</p> Kefayatullah Wasiq, Satya Prakash, Bijendra Singh, Rajat Singh ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 19 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Genotype × Environment Interaction of Brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) Genotypes for Phytochemical and Agronomic Traits <p>Twenty-one brinjal hybrids along with their seven parents and one hybrid check were evaluated in three seasons, <em>viz</em>., autumn-winter, rainy and summer for the study of genotype x environment interaction for different traits and identification of the stable genotypes. Stability analysis revealed that the variance due to genotypes was highly significant for all the characters studied when tested against pooled deviations except days to 50% flowering and days to 1<sup>st</sup> harvest. Likewise, variance due to E + (G <strong>×</strong> E) was highly significant for all characters but significant for days to 1<sup>st</sup> harvest. The genotypes <strong>×</strong> environments (linear) component for days to 50% flowering and days to 1<sup>st</sup> harvest were non-significant when tested against pooled deviation which suggested the preponderance of non-linear component as compared to linear component for both these characters. Rajendra Baigan-2 x BRBL-02, Rajendra Baigan-2 x BRBL-01, Rajendra Baigan-2 x BRBL-04, Muktakeshi x BRBL-01, Muktakeshi x BRBL-04, BRBL-02 x BRBL-04, Swarna Mani x BRBL-01, BRBR-01 x BRBL-01 and BRBR-01 x BRBL-04 were identified as stable hybrids and BRBL-01 and BRBL-04 were stable parents in terms of yield/ plant. BRBL-02 x BRBL-04 was stable in terms of total sugar content, total anthocyanin content and total phenolics content. These genotypes may be utilized for planting throughout the year with good performance and utilized in breeding programmes for developing stable genotypes.</p> Rashmi Kumari, Randhir Kumar, Shirin Akhtar, R. B. Verma ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 21 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Optimal Lethal Dose Determination for Gamma Rays and EMS Induced Mutagenesis in TMV7 and SVPR1 Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) Varieties <p>In the present study two sesame varieties <em>viz.,</em> TMV7 and SVPR1 were treated with varying doses of gamma rays (250, 300, 350, 400 and 450 Gy) and Ethyl Methane Sulphonate (EMS) of different concentrations <em>viz.,</em>0.20, 0.40 and 0.60%. The seed germination percentage was greatly affected by mutagenic treatment of gamma rays and EMS which showed a negative dose dependent relationship in both the varieties. The expected LD<sub>50</sub> values were calculated through probit analysis. The LD<sub>50</sub> values for TMV7 and SVPR1 were fixed at 416.86 Gy and 389.04 Gy for gamma rays and 0.490 % and 0.349% for EMS. The germination percentage of SVPR1 was greatly reduced (17.80 &amp; 20.55 %) and the lethal dose to kill fifty per cent of mutated population was lower (6.68% &amp; 28.78%) than that of TMV7 in both gamma ray and EMS treatment. EMS treatment exhibited significant reduction in seed germination (62.16 % &amp; 66.67 %) than gamma irradiation (56.76 % &amp; 54.55 %) in TMV7 and SVPR1 respectively. The study concluded that both the mutagens are effective to produce significant variations in sesame which can be further explored for mutation mapping.</p> G. Parthasarathi, M. Arumugam Pillai, R. Kannan, S. Merina Prem Kumari, Asish K. Binodh ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 22 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0000 To Determine the Structure and Function of Bhagar Oxbow Lake in Dumraon, Buxar, South Bihar, India <p>The paper deals with the structure, function, and fisheries resources of Bhagar lake, South &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Bihar, one of the oxbow lakes in Dumraon (un-reported and un-described), from February &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2018 to January 2020 under the state non plan research project. This lake is spread from &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Nauki par (Chakki) to Nainijore (Brahampur), Dumraon, (Buxar) with a large size wetland in dimension of 20 km length &amp; 1 km width. Bhagar oxbow lake is U shaped, hydrological closed lentic type meander of the Ganga river, it is fed by the monsoon runoff and ingress of flood water from the river Dharmawati. The water depth of lake ranges between 1.5 to 3 meters in summer and depth 4 to 6 meters during the Monsoon months. Water temperature ranged from 16°C (January) to 30°C (August) whereas the pH value of lake water was found within 7.0 to 7.8. In aspect of biological properties of the lake, it was highly infested with submerged vegetation with dominancy of <em>Hydrilla cillata</em> and floating aquatic weeds (water hyacinth) such as <em>Eichhormia crassipes</em> with approximately 30 percent area coverage. This lake is rich sources of fishes with identified forty four species with example of annual fishes like <em>Mystus spp., Puntius spp., Channa spp.</em>, <em>Carps spp</em>., small <em>Macrobrachium spp</em>. and several seasonal fishes, providing livelihood support to more than sixty five household, socio-cultural importance. It also gives protection to many wild mammals like Blackbucks (<em>Antelope cervicapra</em>), swamp deer (<em>Rucervus duvaucelii</em>) and Nilgai (<em>Boselaphus tragocamelus</em>) during summer time. This lake is also wintering ground of the migratory birds such as Heron and Crane.</p> Suday Prasad, Subodh Kumar, Tapan Gorai, Ajay Kumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 22 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Socialization Level and Market Response of Pulse Crop: Structural and Functional Interpretation <p>Pulses are important component of diet in Indian, mainly for being one of the leading cheap and reliable sources of protein. The emphasis of the Government has, accordingly, been on increasing production of pulses through area expansion and adoption of improved technology. Equally important is the marketing of the pulses, particularly in an objective condition created by the introduction of reforms in the marketing sector, conspicuous by an existing demand-supply gap in pulses. Marketing can also help inducing an element of incentive to farmer through participation in processing and distribution of pulses through direct marketing, or cooperative marketing to get higher share in the consumer’s price. The study has been carried out in two developed block namely Chakdah and Haringhata of Nadia district in West Bengal. The two villages out of twenty-seven gram panchayat were purposively selected for the present study. The multistage purposive and random sample techniques were the key to contrast sampling design in the present study. The statistical tools like mean, standard deviation and coefficient of variation, coefficient of variation, coefficient of correlation, multiple regression, step down multiple regression and path analysis. The study also responded to the inquiry as to where and how much the crop marketed this will be much rewarding and beneficiary to the common farmer. The determinants like yield (kg/bigha), farmer’s attitude towards Pulse crop cultivation and gross return (Rs/ Bigha) are decisively characterizing the marketed surplus of pulse crop.</p> Dibyendu Pal, Arindam Ghosh, Amitava Biswas, Sankar Kr. Acharya, Kabita Mondal ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 23 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0000