Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology https://journalcjast.com/index.php/CJAST <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology (ISSN:&nbsp;2457-1024)</strong> is dedicated to publish research papers, reviews, case studies and short communications from all disciplines of science and technology. By not excluding papers on the basis of subject area, CJAST facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology 2457-1024 Sustainable Irrigation through Renovation of Pond: A Case Study on Change of Crop Production, Irrigation, Cropping Pattern and Cropping Intensity Level in Sub Himalayan Terai Region of India https://journalcjast.com/index.php/CJAST/article/view/30818 <p>Terai region of West Bengal fall under high rainfall region but 90% rainfall occurs in kharif season and drought observed during rabi season.&nbsp; NICRA project started in the Cooch Behar District during 2011. The project area and plan of work were selected on the basis of participatory rural appraisal method. The experimental trial was conducted from 2011 to 2019. The objective of the experiment was to development of sustainable irrigation system through renovation of pond and its impact on crop production. It was found from the study that pond renovation has potential impact on increasing crop yield, cropping intensity, copping system and area of irrigation.</p> Ganesh Das Sankar Saha F. H. Rahman Surajit Sarkar Sujan Biswas Sandip Hembram Prashanta Barman Samima Sultana Bikash Roy Bablu Ganguly ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-03 2020-08-03 7 18 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2130818 Financial and Production Constraints faced by Women Entrepreneurs https://journalcjast.com/index.php/CJAST/article/view/30817 <p>Women, who try to enter the field of industry in either managerial or entrepreneurial role, are generally exposed to various constraints. Though the entrepreneurial process is the same for men and women, there are however, in practice, women have to confront many additional problems of varying dimensions and magnitudes, which prevent them from realizing their full potential as entrepreneurs. Women entrepreneurs experience multidimensional constraints. The governments at the centre and the states have established a number of specialized institutions to cater to the needs of women entrepreneurs but they still face many problems. At this juncture, the constraints faced by women entrepreneurs were studied as one of the objective. This objective was to ascertain the financial, production and labour constraints faced by women in their enterprise. To achieve the purpose of the study, 40 registered women entrepreneurs in Micro Small and Medium Enterprise (MSME) were identified in Coimbatore District of Tamil Nadu. Series of questions were asked through well structured interview schedule. Evidence in the paper shows that the most serious financial constraint faced by women was, that the entire loan was not given at a time (65.00%). In production and labour, most serious constraints faced by women entrepreneurs were labour management in various essential activities (92.5%). Methodology and design not clarified here. No recommendations The ex post - facto type of research was employed. Proportionate Random sample method” was adopted to select the respondents from the four Entrepreneurial Hubs. Women should attend training programs, seminars, workshop and conferences Related to develop professional competencies in managerial, leadership, marketing, financial, production process, profit planning, maintaining books of accounts and other skills.</p> N. Suganthi M. Asokhan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-01 2020-08-01 1 6 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2130817 Evaluation of Heritability and Genetic Advance for Morphological Traits of Indian Mustard Germplasms https://journalcjast.com/index.php/CJAST/article/view/30820 <p>Genotypic source of variations were significant for all characters in 168 genotypes including 7 checks of Indian mustard at 5% level of significance. Maximum seed yield per plant (g) and harvest index was recorded in MRNJ-82; whereas, the minimum days to 50% flowering and maturity were recorded in RVM-1 and MRNJ-5 respectively. In genotypes viz; MRNJ-36, RVM-2, MRNJ-59, JM-1, MRNJ-53 and MRNJ-35 had maximum plant height (cm), number of primary branches per plant, number of secondary branches per plant, number of siliqua per plant, number of seeds per siliqua and 1000 seed weight (g). Highest GCV and PCV were recorded for seed yield per plant which indicates for improvement through selection among these genotypes. High heritability along with high genetic advance as percentage of mean has been noticed for seed yield per plant and harvest index indicating less influence of environment and also the presence of additive, dominance and interaction among genes in the expressions of these characters. Low genetic advance along with low heritability estimate were observed for number of primary branches per plant and number of seeds per siliqua. This indicates the involvement of additive and non-additive gene actions in their inheritance.</p> Dinesh Awasthi Vimlesh Kumar Tiwari V. S. Kandalkar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-03 2020-08-03 39 47 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2130820 Divulging Satisfaction Levels of Residents for Household Waste Management through Vermicomposting at Dr. Rajendra Prasad Central Agricultural University: A Cross-sectional Exploration https://journalcjast.com/index.php/CJAST/article/view/30821 <p>The reduction of household wastes has been a pressing issue and is a key element of waste management programme in India. The goal of present research was to evaluate the ongoing Household Waste Management Practices (HWMPs) of the University in managing the waste generated within it. To realize this goal, researchers conducted survey and investigative study with campus residents on HWMPs being followed in the campus. In this backdrop, the present study was conducted with the following two objectives: To measure the Socio-Personal, Socio-psychological profiles and appraisal of on-site treatment of Household Waste of the Respondents with scientific parsimony and to quantify overall satisfaction level of the respondents as dependent variable. Out of total 750 residential quarters in the university from which 50 household heads of the quarters were selected through ‘probability simple random sampling’. In qualitative methods observation, interviews, open-ended surveys, focus groups and oral history were used. Closely 90 percent of respondents were well acquainted with the fact that collected household wastes are being converted into vermi-compost inside the university campus itself. More than one-fourth of the respondents addressed the problem of throwing garbage around the metallic dustbins. In order to generate statistical information quantitative survey of satisfaction level was done which revealed that more than 80 percent respondent showed their satisfaction for HWMPs. By applying the Pearson chi-square test it was revealed that satisfaction level of the respondents were inclined ‘towards satisfied to fully satisfied’ categories with the chi-square value, i.e. 24.72 was significant at 1% level with P-value of 0.001. So, it can be concluded that residents were satisfied from waste management programme and thus rejecting the framed null hypothesis. So, it can be inferred that this model of waste management may be recommended and replicated throughout the country and abroad.</p> Uday Kumar Shankar Jha Sudhanand Prasad Lal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-03 2020-08-03 48 55 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2130821 Assessment of Gene Action for Grain Micronutrient Content, Yield and Yield Contributing Traits in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) https://journalcjast.com/index.php/CJAST/article/view/30822 <p>Biofortification of food crops using conventional breeding or biotechnological approach is gaining momentum to alleviate micronutrient malnutrition.&nbsp; Rice is a nice choice for biofortification of grain iron and zinc content as this is a cheap and chief staple food for millions of peoples world-wide particularly the poor. In present study, generation mean analysis was done to estimate the nature and magnitude of gene effects for grain iron and zinc content in rice cross Khusisoi-RI-Sareku × IR 91175-27-1-3-1-3.&nbsp; Scaling test and Joint scaling test indicated the influence of epistasis on the expression of yield, its component traits and grain Fe and Zn content and inadequacy of additive-dominance model to explain the variation in different generations. Dominance [h] gene effect was of higher magnitude as compared to additive [d] gene effect for both grain iron and grain zinc content.&nbsp; Additive × additive, additive × dominance and dominance × dominance component was significant for both grain Fe and Zn content, whereas dominance × dominance component was predominant for both grain Fe and Zn content. Dominance [h] gene effect and dominance × dominance interaction acted in opposite directions, indicating duplicate type of gene action controlling the expression of both grain Fe and grain Zn content which could be a bottleneck to exploit heterosis. Heterosis breeding and recombination breeding with postponement of selection till later generations, could be effective in improving both grain Fe and grain Zn content in rice.</p> Ashutosh Kumar Avinash Kumar N. K. Singh Rajesh Kumar . Nilanjaya S. K. Singh Mithilesh Kumar Singh Aman Tigga . Banshidhar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-03 2020-08-03 56 63 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2130822 Study on Soil Nutrient Status According to Global Positioning System in Different Blocks of Birbhum District of West Bengal https://journalcjast.com/index.php/CJAST/article/view/30824 <p>A GPS based soil sampling and testing was done in 10 blocks of Birbhum district under monitoring of Rathindra Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Birbhum during 2018 and 2019. In this regard, some soil chemical properties were analysed through <em>Mridaparikshak</em> (soil testing kit). After statistical analysis, pooled data of different soil nutrients were compared based on GPS to prepare a data base for easy fertiliser recommendation of different crops without soil testing. It was found that soil pH (6.29 to 5.50), soil O.C (0.77 to 0.31%), available K (292.12 to 226.60 kg/ha), available B (0.81 to 0.17 mg/kg)&nbsp; and available Fe (44.4 to 21.5 mg/kg) had been decreased with the increase in latitude from 23°04' 07.4500" to 24°11' 15.3400" and longitude. Recommendation of more liming, organic manure, K, B may be done accordingly. On the other hand, available N (184.0 to 296.95 kg/ha), available P (15.05 to 62.76 kg/ha), available S (11.43 to 44.52 kg/ha) and available Zn (0.20 to 1.04 mg/kg) showed sharp direct relation with the increase in Latitude as supported by higher CV value.</p> Subrata Mandal Mrinmoy Karmakar F. H. Rahman ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-05 2020-08-05 64 70 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2130824 Mode of Action of Anti-diabetic Phyto-Compounds Present in Traditional Indian Plants: A Review https://journalcjast.com/index.php/CJAST/article/view/30819 <p>The traditionally used plants having therapeutically potent phyto-chemicals are known to have a great potential in the treatment of various ailments including the non-communicable ones like obesity, diabetes, hypertension, heart diseases etc. Diabetes is a serious metabolic disorder affecting a large number of population worldwide.&nbsp; Despite the great efforts made to understand and manage this disorder, its prevalence is increasing unabatedly which creates an upsurging demand for some other approach than conventional medicines. The use of many traditional plants with anti-diabetic potential is being considered as an alternate strategy, which is cost-effective and has less side effects. This paper reviews the accumulated literature mainly for five Indian herbs having anti-diabetic activity and their proposed action of mechanism which has been scientifically tested. Phyto-compounds present in medicinal plants like gurmur (<em>Gymnema Sylvestre</em>), cinnamon (<em>Cinnamomum</em>), sea buckthorn (<em>Hippophae rhamnoides</em>), mulberry leaves (<em>Moraceae Plant</em>) and fenugreek (<em>Trigonella foenum-graecum</em>) have shown significant hypoglycemic potential in treating type 2 diabetes through several possible mechanisms. Gymnemic acid in gurmur can inhibit the intestinal glucose absorption, whereas cinnamaldehyde in cinnamon and palmitoleic acid in Sea buckthorn enhances glucose uptake. The compound 1-deoxynojirimycin found in mulberry leaves inhibits the enzymatic activity of α-glucosidase and diosgenin in Fenugreek has a role in the regeneration of pancreatic β-cells, thus showing the mechanism of their anti-diabetic action. The inclusion of these medicinal plants in daily dietaries can be looked upon as an alternate strategy towards controlling and managing blood glucose levels among people with diabetes.</p> Divya Jain Kiran Bains Neerja Singla ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-03 2020-08-03 19 38 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2130819 Insights into the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2: Transmission, Genome Composition, Replication, Diagnostics and Therapeutics https://journalcjast.com/index.php/CJAST/article/view/30825 <p>The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2, originated in Wuhan, China in late 2019 has created a massive pandemic; the disease manifested by the virus was named as COVID-19 by World Health Organization. It has appeared as an unprecedented threat against the global health scenario, as well as the world socio-economic-political structure. The infection of the plausibly animate-origin virus, <em>per se</em>, is not dangerous; but its extremely contagious and infectious nature is the major challenge it has posed. In human, the viral receptor is angiotensin converting enzyme-2, which is present in the cellular membranes of multiple vital organs. The virus has different longevity in different contaminated surfaces which are the principal modes of its transmission. No immunity has so far been reported against the virus; however, immuno-compromised individuals are more vulnerable. For its diagnosis, mainly reverse transcription-based diagnosis is presently being used; however, serological diagnosis is still not a regular practice due to several reasons. Multiple public as well as private sector organizations are working towards vaccine development; research for antiviral drugs and drug-repurposing is also in progress. Several candidate vaccines and drugs are now in various levels of clinical trials. Here, we summarize the scientific basis of the pandemic; its diagnosis, treatment and efforts towards therapeutic development. These efforts will prove useful against future emerging and re-emerging human and non-human epidemics as well as pandemics.</p> Rubi Gupta Ricky Raj Paswan Richita Saikia Basanta Kumar Borah ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-05 2020-08-05 71 91 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i2130825