Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology (ISSN:&nbsp;2457-1024)</strong> is dedicated to publish research papers, reviews, case studies and short communications from all disciplines of science and technology. By not excluding papers on the basis of subject area, CJAST facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology 2457-1024 Identification of Suitable Sites for Groundwater Recharge Using the Boolean Model: Case Study: Sidi Bouzid Acquifers <p>The scarcity of water can have harmful effects on human life. In addition, one noticeable issue humanity is faced with is managing water resources. This study aims at selecting the most suitable areas for groundwater artificial recharge using multi-criteria analysis. The fundamental element of this multi-criteria analysis is the choice of criteria that are the most sensitive part of the multi-criteria formulation of a decision problem. Such Criteria included: Slope, Soil Permeability, Soil Salinity, Depth of the Water table, Proximity to road networks, Proximity to the forest, proximity to wetlands, proximity to irrigation areas, proximity to urban areas, proximity to hydrographic networks, proximity to piezometer and borehole. Using Boolean Model, and in the GIS environment, the layers were produced and classified. The results suggested that the area’s most suitable are equal to 12.1%. Also, use of the land had an impact on the removal of restrictions of artificial recharge areas. It could be claimed that 5.5% of the studied area were considered suitable for artificial recharge in Boolean logic using land-use filtering.</p> Sarra Ouerghi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-10-22 2020-10-22 55 76 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3231002 Efficient Regeneration of Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) Plantlets from Cotyledon, Hypocotyl and Leaf Explants: An Excellent Model Plant for Gene Function Analysis <p>Tobacco has been widely used as a model plant for stable and non-stable gene function analysis. Successful <em>Agrobacterium</em>-mediated transformation mainly depends on <em>in vitro</em> regeneration of tobacco plant. However, a reliable and standard regeneration protocol of tobacco using multiple explants is limited. In this study, we established a reliable and reproducible regeneration protocol of tobacco using three different explants i.e. cotyledon, hypocotyl and leaf. Preliminary, surface sterilized tobacco seeds were germinated on growth regulator free MS medium. Thereafter, <em>in vitro</em> germinated explants were inoculated into Murashige and Skoog [1] media supplemented with different combination and types of growth regulators for callus induction and subsequent regeneration of plantlets. It was revealed that, regeneration ability of explants is greatly influenced by type and nature of the explant. Among the three explants, higher callus induction (95%) was obtained in MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg l<sup>-1</sup> kinetin + 2.0 mg l<sup>-1</sup> IAA from leaf explant. Also, leaf explant exhibited much higher regeneration ability (95%) than hypocotyl (60%) and cotyledon (45%) explants. Significantly highest number of shoots (8.0) were regenerated from leaf explants cultured on MS medium supplemented with 3.0 mg l<sup>-1</sup> Kinetin+1.0 mg l<sup>-1</sup> IAA compared to the other hormone combinations. Regenerated mature shoots were showed normal root after transferred onto ½ MS medium containing 0.3 mg l<sup>-1</sup> IBA. This study will provide valuable information related to <em>in vitro</em> regeneration of tobacco plantlets using cotyledon, hypocotyl and leaf explants and will be used as a standard protocol for <em>Agrobacterium</em>-mediated transformation for gene function analysis.</p> Md. Shoyeb Kanis Fatema Md. Abdur Rauf Sarkar Atikur Rahman Shaikh Mizanur Rahman ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-10-20 2020-10-20 1 9 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3230996 Production, Quality Evaluation and Postprandial Effects of High Fibre Fructose Sweetened Confectionery Snacks (Cookies) as a Functional Diet <p>Production, quality evaluation and postprandial effect of high fibre fructose sweetened confectionery snacks (cookies) as functional diet was investigated. It was to establish the chemical, sensory evaluation and postprandial effects of the products, cookie ingredients were purchased from Ankpa Kogi state, date fruits (Dabino) was processed into powder both sweetener were weighed rations. A creaming method cookie production was used and standard methods were used for the analyses. Triplicate values were obtained in each case and expressed on dry weight basis. All data collected were analysed statistically using SPSS version 20.0 package. Means and standard deviation were calculated at significant level of p ≤ 0.01. From the analyses, proximate composition (%) at (30, 40 and 50) in various ratios; showed that Moisture; (11.20 to 13.10) in sample C and B, [8.30 to 10.03] E and B (6.44 to 10.41) in B and C. Ash was (0.33 to 0.53) in C and D, (0.40 to 0.58) for C and B and (0.73 to1.0)&nbsp; E and B respectively, crude fibre were (0.17 to 0.41) in C and B (0.2 to 0.48) and (0.33 to 0.37) in C and A while crude fat included; (13.83 to 16.21), A and B, (8.23 to11.70) C and B and (7.83 to 13.43) in A and B, proteins was (12.98 to 17.16) for C and D, (11.17 to 12.90) E and D, (12.52 to 17.80) C and D and Carbohydrates included; (53.60 to 83.62), in B and E. (65.53 to 69.53) for D and C and (57.95 to 70.00) in E and&nbsp; A. Minerals in mg/100&nbsp; included; sodium (52.50 to 70.33) B and A, (45.87 to 74.10) E and A and (41.23 to 76. 20) in B and D, Potassium (30.50 to 37.30%) in C and E, (30.60. to 56.0) in E and B (27.40 to 57.80) B and D, calcium (215.97 to 251.20) in C and D, (42.87 to 74.12) C and B (41.23 to 76. 20)&nbsp; B and D magnesium included (28.60 to 127.22) B and D, (112 to148.30) for C and B (115.50 to 142.20) phosphorus; (55.60 to 73.46) in A and B and (54.14&nbsp; to 67.20) C and A. (56.18 to 71.36 ) for A and D. ferrous were (8.12 to 20.20) for&nbsp; B and E (11.71 to 30.07) C and B (17.04 to 29.42) in E and D Phytochemical contents at 30, 40 and 50% (mg / 100g) included; Tannic acid (1.8 to 2.9 mg), (2.20 to 3.44) and (2.76 to 5.00) flavonoid&nbsp;&nbsp; (2.27 to 3.74),&nbsp; (3.78 to 5.91) and &nbsp;(4.07 to6.96) phenolic acid (7.38 to 3.58), (8.71 to 16.43), (8.71 to16.43) Saponin (1.00 to 2.09), (1.05 to 2.47) and (1.05 to 2.46) Carotenoid included; (5.31 to 8.77), (1.05 to 2.56), (1.05 to 2.47) Alkaloid (0.08 to 0.40), (0.10 to 0.25) and (0.10 to 0.25) C and B&nbsp; for all the samples. The Sensory attributes in in ratios and at 30, 40 and 50% included; taste (7.00 to 8.30), (6.60 to 8.17) both samples were the same in&nbsp; 2:1 and 0:1 but 50% was (5.27 to 8.00) in 1:0 and, 1:1&nbsp; the colour of the samples included (5.16 to 7.70),in 2:1 and 0:1&nbsp; (6.17 to 7.67) in&nbsp; 1:0 and&nbsp; 1:1 and (5.37 to 8.37)&nbsp; 2:1 and, 0:1&nbsp; Flavour included; (5.10 to 8.10), (5.77 to 8.67) and&nbsp; (6.27 to 7.67) in 1:0 and 1:2, crispness (5.77 to 7.27) 1:2 and 0:1&nbsp; (5.77 to 8.70) 1:0 to, 1:2 (6.00 to 7.17) for 0:1 and 1:0 while the texture were in the range of (6.767 to 7.87) 1:0 and, 0:1 (5.67 to 7.50) for 2:1 and 1:1 and (6.00 to 7.07) in ratios 0:1 and 1:1. The postprandial effect of cookies in mmol / L showed (5.64 to 7.87) in ratio 1:0 and 1:2 and (6.20 to 6.8) for 1:1 and 1:2 at 30% and 40% respectively. The inhibitory effects of date fruits at 50% in ratio 1:0 (date palm) only can be modified optimized and use as potential pharmaceutical therapy in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, and other parameter tested moisture contents, phytochemical and postprandial effects were within the acceptable limit.</p> Opega Justina Ladi Orishagbemi Cornelius, Ojo Samuel Faruna ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-10-21 2020-10-21 25 42 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3230999 Optimization of Nitrogen Dose under Different Irrigation Levels in Maize (Zea mays L.) during Post Monsoon Season at Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, India <p>A field experiment was conducted at Agro Climate Research Center, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, India during post monsoon season of 2019-20 with an objective to optimize the nitrogen dose under varied degrees of water stress environment. The experiment was laid out in split plot design replicated thrice with three irrigation scheduling (60%DASM, 40%DASM and 20%DASM) as main plots and three nitrogen levels (90, 180 and 240 kg of nitrogen ha<sup>-1</sup>) as sub plots. The results indicated that, at 20% DASM, with increasing nitrogen dose from 90 to180 and further 240 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>, the plant height and biomass increased significantly. Whereas a significant response in terms of the LAI, number of grains row<sup>-1</sup>, grain and stover yields and nitrogen uptake by plant was observed up to 180 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup>.Under deficit soil moisture condition (60% DASM) the maximum plant height (141.5cm), LAI (2.93), biomass (222.3 g plant<sup>-1</sup>), number of grains row<sup>-1</sup> (35.3) test weight (24.1 g), grain yield (4930 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), stover yields (7996kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) and nitrogen uptake by plant was recorded with low nitrogen dose of 90 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup> and all these parameters were decreased with increasing nitrogen dose. The concentration of nitrogen in leaf, stem and grain was more under deficit soil moisture condition (60% DASM) and was decreased with reliving plant water stress by scheduling irrigation at 40% DASM and 20% DASM. This investigation evidences the need of nitrogen optimization under varied degree of moisture availability. Under deficit irrigated situation, lower dose of nitrogen is sufficient for optimum yield. Whereas under sufficient water availability, the beneficial effect increased nitrogen levels can be exploited for higher grain yield in maize.</p> B. Soujanya B. Balaji Naik M. Uma Devi T. L. Neelima Anima Biswal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-10-21 2020-10-21 43 54 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3231000 Comparative Study of Enrollee Satisfaction with Private and Public Health Care Providers of Community Based Health Insurance Scheme in Edu LGA, Kwara State <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Many low and middle income countries keep on searching for different ways of financing their health systems. In order to ensure accessibility to quality health services by those in the rural areas, a Community Based Health Insurance Scheme was initiated which aim to integrate both human and financial resources within the rural communities to provide basic healthcare services to its resident. <sup>&nbsp;</sup>In recent years, level of patient satisfactions have been identified as one of the major yardsticks to measure quality of healthcare. This study was conducted to compare enrollees satisfaction of public and private providers of community based health insurance scheme in Edu Local Government Area of Kwara State, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methodology: </strong>A descriptive cross sectional study was carried out among eight hundred respondents that were selected using multistage sampling technique. Data was collected using a semi-structured interviewer administered questionnaire and Focus Group Discussion. Analysis was done with EPI info software and confidence level was held at 95% and a p-value of less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The satisfaction level with private facility (4.28±0.35) was higher than that with public facilities (4.12 ±0.48). The difference was significant at a p-value of &lt;0.001. Private providers had a higher satisfaction level than the public providers in the domains of empathy, tangibles, assurance and timeliness. The difference was statistically significant as the p-value was less than 0.05. No differences in level of satisfaction in responsiveness among the respondents of both providers as the p-value was 0.295. There was an association between marital status and satisfaction in public providers while an association occur between type of marriage and satisfaction in private provider. There was an association for both providers in occupation level, level of education and length of enrolment.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion and Recommendation:&nbsp; </strong>There was a higher overall satisfaction among enrollees of private providers than the public providers of Community Based Health Insurance Scheme. Health care delivery by private providers is of good quality and as such private facilities should be maintained as part of the providers of Community Based Health Insurance Scheme. Government should also strengthen monitoring and supervision to ensure good quality of health care delivery to the enrollees especially in the public health facilities.</p> I. M. Sheshi Y. F. Issa S. A. Aderibigbe B. E. Agbana M. D. Sanni ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-10-23 2020-10-23 77 84 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3231003 Continuous Radiofrequency-Assisted Thermal Processing of Packaged Soft Wheat Flour <p>Soft wheat flour (SWF) is a low-moisture food ingredient in many ready-to-eat foods. Foodborne illnesses and outbreaks from consumption of multiple low-moisture foods heightened the importance of its microbiological safety. Traditional thermal processing methods take a long time to achieve desired pasteurization and are not suitable for processing the packaged products. The novel continuous radiofrequency (RF)-assisted thermal processing for packaged SWF was investigated with an objective of reducing the processing time. The temperature profiles in packaged SWF during RF heating at eight different locations under the stationary and moving conditions were investigated. The temperature difference between the coldest and the hottest locations in stationary RF heating of packaged SWF was 31°C. When the package was flipped up-side down along the long axis in stationary condition, the temperature difference was reduced to 24°C. The RF heating uniformity of packaged SWF with the conveyor movement improved and the temperature difference between the hottest and the coldest locations under this condition was only 15°C. The quality parameters of packaged SWF at 80°C for 7 h were not significantly different from that of the unpasteurized and batch mode processed SWF. This study demonstrated the continuous RF-assisted thermal processing of packaged SWF.</p> Sreenivasula Reddy Boreddy Jeyamkondan Subbiah ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-10-23 2020-10-23 85 94 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3231004 Enrichment of Organic Manures and Their Utilization in Vegetable Crops <p>Agriculture intensification through indiscriminate and irrational use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides has resulted in reduction of crop productivity, lowered fertilizer use efficiency, accelerated environmental degradation and soil heath thus posing serious threat to the sustainability of agriculture, ecological balance and human health. However, people are gradually realizing the emerging danger and showing interest in sustainable crop production practices such increased use of organic manures to revitalize and restore soil fertility and reviving the microbial activity of the soil. Traditionally farmyard manure, animal wastes, compost, vermicompost are used as source of organic fertilizers for improving soil fertility and crop productivity. However, low nutrient content, bulkiness, handling difficulties and labour intensive application prevent the growers for larger use of these traditional organic manures. Gradually there is a decline in microbial activity of these organic manures which in turn leads to depletion of enzymatic activity and composition of nutrient. Manure enrichment increases the nutrient content, microbial population, enzyme activity and increase the fertility status of the soil. Enrichment of manures and composts is done by incorporation of mineral additives (rock phosphate, zinc salt etc.), bio-fertilizers (nitrogen fixing, phosphorus and potassium solubilising bacteria etc.) and bio-inoculations (<em>Trichoderma, Pseudomonas </em>etc.) have lot of benefits on crops in terms of higher yield, better quality, increased disease and pest resistance, availability of essential nutrients and increased soil microbial population and activity. Regular use of higher amount of enriched organic manures will not only reduce the amount of organic manure requirements, but will also increase the use efficiency of the applied manures. Preparation and application of enriched organic manures should be promoted to more number of vegetable growers for organic cultivation as well as for traditional crop cultivation. The present review work on enrichment of organic manure was aimed to explore the possibility of preparation and utilization of enriched organic manures on vegetable crop growth, yield and soil health. The different enrichment method and their utilization will motivate the farming community to adopt enrichment of available organic manures which in turn reduce soil pollution and environmental degradation from fossil fuels.</p> V. Sindhu Ranjit Chatterjee G. M. Santhoshkumar Trisha Sinha ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-10-21 2020-10-21 10 24 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3230998