Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology https://journalcjast.com/index.php/CJAST <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology (ISSN:&nbsp;2457-1024)</strong> is dedicated to publish research papers, reviews, case studies and short communications from all disciplines of science and technology. By not excluding papers on the basis of subject area, CJAST facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology 2457-1024 Clean Energy Access and Productive Use by Bottom of Pyramid Clients in Ethnic & Tribal Areas of Odisha: An Appraisal https://journalcjast.com/index.php/CJAST/article/view/31072 <p>Ending poverty and ensuring sustainability are the defining challenges of the recent times. Energy has the answer to both [1]. Surged right of entry to the modern energy uses&nbsp; is perilous but a positive&nbsp; support to human and their economic expansion through uninterrupted delivery of energy amenities for elementary needs to support both prolific uses and generating employments. Access to modern energy Services like electricity, natural fossil and coal gases, cooking hydrocarbons and wood fuel, etc. are essential for value-added health and agrarian yield [2]. This paper discus on actionable research undertaken for improving the quality of life of countryside individuals (mainly scheduled tribe areas) in some districts of southern zones Odisha by using clean energy systems.</p> Shiv Sankar Das Debashree Debadatta Behera Siba Prasad Mishra Gautam Pradhan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-11-28 2020-11-28 38 50 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3631072 Effect of Dietary Cation-Anion Difference on Milk Composition and Blood Mineral Status of Peripartum Buffaloes https://journalcjast.com/index.php/CJAST/article/view/31075 <p>This study aimed to determine the effect of diet formulated to provide prepartum (DCAD= -749.16 mEq/head/day) and postpartum (DCAD = 1473.56 mEq/head/day) by feeding 90 g of an anionic and 120 g cationic salt respectively, on blood mineral concentration, health, postpartum milk production and composition in buffaloes. Twenty multiparous buffaloes were enrolled 21 days before expected calving date and divided into two groups. The treatment group with 10 cows received anionic rations for - 21 day to parturition and cationic ration from parturition to +21 days, while the control group was fed a usual ration. Postpartum incidences of milk fever, dystocia, retention of placenta, mastitis as well as weekly data of milk production, and milk composition were recorded. Plasma samples obtained at days -21, -10, -1, +1, +10 and +21 relative to calving were analyzed for calcium and magnesium. Magnesium concentration was increased with reduced prepartum Dietary Cation-Anion Difference (DCAD) in the diet value being 2.77±0.13 mg/dl and 3.15±0.12 mg/dl for the control and treatment group respectively, one day before calving. Calcium concentration was significantly higher (P&lt;0.05) just one day before calving and it further higher (P&lt;0.001) at 1, 10 and 21 days after calving in the treatment group as compared to the control group. Considerable reduction in per cent incidence of parturient paresis (10.0 vs. 20.0), and prolapse (0.0 vs. 10.0) was observed treatment group as compared to the control group. The DCAD concentration had no effect on milk yield, protein, lactose and fat corrected milk, but postpartum milk fat was significantly increased by the treatment. It may be concluded that by altering DCAD of the diet can increase postpartum milk fat with benefits in calcium status and reduced disease incidence without negatively affecting performance in periparturient buffaloes.</p> R. N. Patel P. C. Lailer . Vipin P. K. Soni K. Kumar S. Bhardwaj ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-01 2020-12-01 79 88 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3631075 Soil Quality Indicators as an Assessment Tool to Maximize the Productivity of Pulse Crops https://journalcjast.com/index.php/CJAST/article/view/31076 <p>The present research investigation was taken up&nbsp; during 2017-2019 to evaluate the properties and fertility status of soils through physical, chemical and biological indicators of soil quality in the major pulse growing regions which were classified into three categories viz., low yielding (&lt; 400kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), medium (400 to 700 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) and high yielding (&gt; 700 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>). 300 samples collected from these zones were subjected to analysis and weight ages were assigned to each soil quality attribute through Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and those that explain at least 5% of the variation in the data were examined by using SPSS software. The mean percentage of water stable aggregates was the highest (51%) in high yielding soils which can be attributed to the beneficial effect of organic manure application and balanced fertilizer usage. Most of the samples in the high yielding soils were neutral to slightly alkaline (pH of 7.20 to 7.85), while that of medium and low yielding soils were&nbsp; moderately alkaline and neutral to slightly alkaline respectively. However low yield category had an average cation exchange capacity of 12.2 c mol (p<sup>+</sup>) kg<sup>-1</sup>, whereas that of medium and high yield&nbsp; categories recorded 21.8 and 36.9 c mol (p<sup>+</sup>) kg<sup>-1</sup> respectively. The soils of high, medium and low yield zones recorded 282,234 and 138 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> of available nitrogen respectively. The sulphur status in pulse growing soils revealed deficiency in 88 percent of the samples from low yielding zones which needs due attention. The overall results of the study concluded that the higher values of soil attributes such as aggregate stability, cation exchange capacity, organic carbon, available nitrogen, available potassium and extractable micronutrients corresponded well with the high yield category indicating the importance of these soil quality indicators for improving the pulse productivity in low yield zones.</p> B. Bhakiyathu Saliha R. Indrani C. Priyanka ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-02 2020-12-02 89 95 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3631076 A Quick-Look Model to Predict Gas Hydrate Formation in Gas Pipelines using Modified Navier-Stokes Correlation https://journalcjast.com/index.php/CJAST/article/view/31067 <p>Major challenges associated with the smooth production operations in the oil and gas industry that has raised technical curiosity are formation of natural gas hydrates in production facilities and flow lines which introduces significant cost to operators. Accurate modeling is therefore paramount; most existing models are based on constitutive conservation laws neglecting other dissipative energy types.</p> <p>To predict “if” and “where” gas hydrate would be formed in gas pipeline, the Navier-Stokes equation was modified by incorporating dissipative forces of viscosity and gravity; the equation that emerged was solved analytically to determine the hydrate formation pressure (HFP) and the position of hydrate formation along gas pipelines.</p> <p>The developed model, used as a quick-look tool for where and if hydrates will form revealed that when the predicted HFP is positive hydrates was formed but when it is negative hydrates were not formed. The model also showed that HFP is a function fluid composition, mass flowrate, changes in fluid and surrounding conditions and changes in elevation and direction confirming the results of earlier work done.</p> Akinsete O. Oluwatoyin Oladipo O. Olatunji Isehunwa O. Sunday ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-11-26 2020-11-26 1 11 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3631067 Distribution of Two Species of Begomoviruses Infecting Blackgram in Andhra Pradesh https://journalcjast.com/index.php/CJAST/article/view/31068 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Yellow mosaic diseases of blackgram is caused by two species of begomoviruses (MYMV, MYMIV). It is known fact that certain varities which are resistant to one species are susceptible to another species when screened by agroinoculations. Hence data on distribution of DNA-A &amp;B components of MYMV / MYMIV under field conditions were not available in Andhra Pradesh.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> In the present study total eighty yellow mosaic infected blackgram samples were colleted from seven districts of Andhra Pradesh during <em>rabi </em>and <em>kharif </em>&nbsp;&nbsp;2016-17. The total DNA was isolated and detected for presence DNA-A and B components of&nbsp;&nbsp; MYMV/ MYMIV by PCR with specific primers. Samples which showed negative in normal PCR are further detected by RCA-PCR.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>PCR results showed that out of 80 YMD infected blackgram samples tested from seven districts, positve results were otained in 50% samples for MYMV-A, 98.75% for MYMIV-A,and&nbsp; 90% for MYMV-B&nbsp;&nbsp; and none for MYMIV-B. However RCA-PCR detected MYMIV-B presence in all 7 samples (8.25%) collected from Guntur district, but none from other six districts. These results clearly shows that both species of begoviruses are present in Andhra Pradesh and MYMIV-A is predominant species&nbsp;&nbsp; in Andhra Pradesh as compared to MYMV-A. Hence germplasm and breedig material should be screened for both the species of begomovirses either under field or through agroinoculations to develop YMV resistant blackgram.&nbsp;</p> B. H. Chaithanya B. V. Bhaskara Reddy L. Prasanthi R. Sarada Jayalakshmi Devi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-11-27 2020-11-27 12 17 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3631068 Study on Assessing the Socio-economic Characters of Banana Cultivating Farmers in Coimbatore and Erode Districts of Tamil Nadu https://journalcjast.com/index.php/CJAST/article/view/31069 <p>Banana is a staple fruit in almost every Indian meal and also an important commercial crop that adds a considerable amount of dollar in country’s export revenues column. But in recent years the share is in decreasing trend due to some inevitable reasons. So understanding factors influencing banana exporting farmer’s especially among small and marginal farmers is a necessary one. This study tries to understand the socio-economic characteristics of banana farmers in Coimbatore and Erode district. 120 samples were selected randomly and well-structured interview schedule is used to collect data. The results show that most of the farmers were in the age group of 41 – 50 (32.50%) and are illiterate (28.33%) with farm experience of about 26-35 years (35%). Sample farmers largely live as a nuclear family (69.17%) and follow agriculture as a sole occupation (36.67%). Most of the sample farmers were marginal farmers (40.8%) with the annual income range of about 1 lakh to 3 lakh (35.83%). As many of them are small and marginal farmers and are illiterate, it is suggested to conduct number of training programs, tour visit and exhibition to increase the awareness about the export of banana.</p> M. Malarkodi V. M. Indumathi K. Divya B. Navaneetham B. Krishnakumare ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-11-28 2020-11-28 18 22 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3631069 Effect of Weed Management Practices on Economics of Groundnut in Coastal Zone of Karnataka https://journalcjast.com/index.php/CJAST/article/view/31070 <p><strong>Aims: </strong>To assess efficacy and economic viablity of herbicides on weed management in groundnut under groundnut during <em>rabi</em>-summer season.</p> <p><strong>Study Design: </strong>The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with three replications.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study: </strong>The field experiment was conducted at Agricultural Research Station, Kumta, Uttar Kannada, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad (Karnataka) during <em>rabi</em> 2016-2017.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>The experiment comprised nine treatments are as follows. T<sub>1</sub>: Unweeded check, T<sub>2:</sub> Weed free check, T<sub>3:</sub> Two hand weeding (At 20 and 40 DAS), T<sub>4:</sub> pendimethalin 30% E.C. @ 1.5 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> (PE) <em>fb</em> one hand weeding at 25 DAS, T<sub>5:</sub> oxyfluorfen 23.5% E.C. @ 200 g ha<sup>-1</sup>(PE) <em>fb</em> one hand weeding at 25 DAS, T<sub>6:</sub> pendimethalin 30% E.C. @ 1.5 kg ha<sup>-1 </sup>(PE) <sup>&nbsp;</sup><em>fb</em> quizalofop-p-ethyl 5% E.C. @ 50 g ha<sup>-1</sup> 20-30 DAS (POE), T<sub>7:</sub> pendimethalin 30% E.C. @ 1.5 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> (PE) <em>fb</em> imazethapyr 10% S.L.&nbsp; @ 75 g ha<sup>-1 </sup>20- 30 DAS (POE), T<sub>8:</sub> pendimethalin 30% E.C. @ 1.5 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> (PE) <em>fb</em> oxyfluorfen 23.5% E.C. @ 100 g ha<sup>-1</sup> at 20-30 DAS (POE), T<sub>9</sub>: pendimethalin 30% E.C. @ 1.0 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> (PE) <em>fb</em> one hand weeding at 25 DAS.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Among the weed management practices revealed that, higher cost of cultivation ( 53,340 ha<sup>-1</sup>) under weed free check and pod yield (2255 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), gross return ( 92,446 ha<sup>-1</sup>), net return ( 45,239 ha<sup>-1</sup>) and benefit cost ratio (1.96) with pre-emergence application of pendimethalin 30% E.C. @ 1.5 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> followed by one hand weeding at 25 DAS.</p> Kunal Narwal B. S. Yenagi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-11-28 2020-11-28 23 28 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3631070 Design of Seeder in Relation to the Physical and Frictional Properties of Black Gram Varieties https://journalcjast.com/index.php/CJAST/article/view/31071 <p>Physical and frictional properties of black gram seeds play an essential role in designing a seeder in order to decide cell size, shape, thickness of metering disc and material, inclination of seed hopper. The present study aimed to determine the physical and frictional properties of black gram seeds of three varieties <em>viz.,</em> VBN 6, ADT 5 &amp; T9. Length, breadth, thickness, roundness, thousand seed weight, geometric mean diameter, sphericity were evaluated for designing metering disc of seeder. Bulk density, true density, angle of repose, coefficient of restitution and coefficient of static friction were evaluated for designing seed hopper of seeder. Cell diameters and thickness of the seed metering discs were designed based on the maximum breadth and length of seeds. Seed flow through the various components of the seeder were affected by both roundness and sphericity. Roundness of VBN 6, ADT 5 and T9 were 0.52, 0.49 and 0.51 respectively, while sphericity in the natural rest position of these seeds were 0.85±0.05, 0.85±0.06 and 0.85±0.04 respectively. The slope of the seed hopper was fixed at 30⁰, which is moderately higher than the average angle of repose of seeds for ensuring free flow of seeds. Mild steel sheet of material grade Fe 410 and 18 gauge <em>i.e.,</em> 1.214mm thickness was selected for seed hopper in reference to the coefficient of static friction to other materials (Al, GI, SS &amp; wood). In addition, the inner bottom surface of the seed hopper from where the seed enters into metering disc was imbedded with 3mm thick rubber sheet as its coefficient of restitution was lower than mild steel sheet of same thickness at different heights. It was observed that the average coefficient of restitution values of three varieties (VBN 6, ADT 5 &amp; T9) were 4.2, 2.8, 2.8, 2.9, 2.9 &amp; 2.1 times lower in rubber sheet compared to MS sheet at the heights of 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 &amp; 300 mm respectively.</p> Korla Harshavardhan S. S. Sivakumar J. John Gunasekar V. Alex Albert P. K. Padmanathan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-11-28 2020-11-28 29 37 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3631071 Application of Fuzzy Logic in Prevention of Road Accidents Using Multi Criteria Decision Alert https://journalcjast.com/index.php/CJAST/article/view/31073 <p>With development and growth of technology, there has been an upsurge in number of vehicles on the street globally, which has resulted in increase of traffic jams and road accidents. This growing problem is being studied by researchers to find the solution. Fuzzy logic method is widely used in Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). In our study, considering various parameters required to control the vehicle safety, a fuzzy logic model was developed for automatic speed alert, brake alert with sensors and cameras in vehicles. For intelligent transport, Fuzzy Interface System (FIS) is developed to support drivers’ decision making and alert them to control speed and brake so as to avoid accidents. The Rule Based System was established using various linguistic rules. Accordingly, 50 effective IF—Then rules were generated in the present study. In conclusion, this model can be inbuilt in the vehicles, with different number of inputs and outputs and for a fully automated system, to reduce the road accidents and traffic jams. The outcome of the research would lead to reduction road accidents.</p> Rajshri Gupta Onkar K. Chaudhari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-11-28 2020-11-28 51 61 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3631073 Mulches and Their Impact on Floor Management and Performance of Fruit Crops: A Review https://journalcjast.com/index.php/CJAST/article/view/31074 <p>Apart from the various innovations and technologies developed, productivity of most of the fruit crops in India remains at a lower level when compared to the major producers and developed countries. In the present era of health awareness, demand of the quality fruits, classified as protective foods, has increased globally. The ever-growing demand for the quality fruits and market competition has been compelling the farmers to produce more but quality fruits. Use of mulches is an age old practice and also one the cheapest methods under protected cultivation technologies which could help the orchardists to increase the production with higher quality. Looking to the several biotic and abiotic challenges in fruit production, adoption of mulching technique at large scale might be helpful to mitigate several problems considering the advantages of mulching. Several studies have shown that mulching in fruit crops has positive impact on soil moisture status, soil temperature along with weed suppression thus on rhizosphere of the plants. These rhizospheric conditions favour the vegetative as well as yield and quality parameters of the fruit crops. In this paper, an attempt has been made to review the impact of mulching on floor management (soil moisture status, soil temperature and weed suppression) as well as growth, yield and quality characteristics in fruit crops with the help of appropriate findings available in literature.</p> Vijay P. Singh Rajkumar Jat Virendra Kumar Ravinder singh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-11-30 2020-11-30 62 78 10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3631074