Risk Factors Associated with COVID-19 and Gastrointestinal Manifestations in Older Adult Patients

Anguiano-Velazquez Tabata Gabriela *

Coordinación Clínica de Educación e Investigación en Salud, Unidad de Medicina Familiar No. 3. Distrito Federal 2 Norte, IMSS, Mexico.

Granados-Kraulles Jorge Arturo

Jefatura de Enfermería, Enseñanza y áreas Técnicas, Hospital General de Zona con Medicina Familiar No. 76. Estado de México Oriente, IMSS, Estado de México, México.

Santiago-Sanchez Benita

Jefatura de Urgencias. Hospital General de Zona con Medicina Familiar No. 76. Estado de México Oriente, IMSS, Estado de México, México.

Salcedo-Vargas Mauricio

Unidad de Investigación Médica en Enfermedades Oncológicas, Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI, IMSS, Ciudad de México, México.

Delgadillo-Urban Yerendira Margot

Unidad de Medicina Familiar No. 77. Estado de México Oriente, IMSS, Estado de México, México.

Herrerias-Colin Luis Angel

Unidad de Medicina Familiar No. 77. Estado de México Oriente, IMSS, Estado de México, México.

Huato-Andrade Cristhian

Unidad de Medicina Familiar No. 77. Estado de México Oriente, IMSS, Estado de México, México.

Chilpa-Garibay Angel Victor

Unidad de Medicina Familiar No. 77. Estado de México Oriente, IMSS, Estado de México, México.

Garcia-Gonzalez Angelica

Clínica de Medicina Familiar 5 de febrero, ISSSTE, Ciudad de México, México.

Hernandez-Salinas Miguel

Unidad de Medicina Familiar No. 77. Estado de México Oriente, IMSS, Estado de México, México.

Lopez-Ramirez Eduardo

Hospital General de Zona con Medicina Familiar No. 76. Estado de México Oriente, IMSS, Estado de México, México.

Gutierrez-Salcido Ana Luisa

Jefatura de Enfermería, Enseñanza y áreas Técnicas, Hospital General Regional No. 72. Estado de México Oriente, IMSS. Estado de México, México.

Téllez-Guzman Irene Judith

Hospital General de Zona con Medicina Familiar No. 76. Estado de México Oriente, IMSS, Estado de México, México.

Perez-Juarez Luis Daniel

Hospital General de Zona con Medicina Familiar No. 76. Estado de México Oriente, IMSS, Estado de México, México.

Salmeron-Hilario Exequiel

Hospital General de Zona con Medicina Familiar No. 76. Estado de México Oriente, IMSS, Estado de México, México.

Ruiz-Martinez Airym

Hospital General de Zona con Medicina Familiar No. 76. Estado de México Oriente, IMSS, Estado de México, México.

Lopez-Hernandez Daniel

Clínica de Medicina Familiar “División del Norte”, ISSSTE. Ciudad de México, México.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Aims: To establish the association of gastrointestinal symptoms and possible risk factors with COVID-19 in older adults.

Study Design: An observational, cross-sectional, descriptive, retrospective study was designed using secondary sources, with a quantitative approach and non-probability convenience sampling.

Place and Duration of Study: The study included a population of 312 records of individuals aged 18 and over with COVID-19. The population was divided into two groups: one consisting of individuals aged 18 to 59 and the other of individuals aged 60 and over.

Methodology: Possible risk factors and gastrointestinal manifestations associated with COVID-19 in older adults were analysed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression models.

Results: In older adults, the main gastrointestinal manifestation was diarrhea (OR=2.086, 95% CI 1.007-4.322, p=0.048). The risk of COVID-19 increased in older adults with type 2 diabetes (OR=2.053, 95% CI 1.149-3.671, p=0.015), hypertension (OR=2.34, 95% CI 1.191-4.596, p=0.014), and respiratory diseases (OR=8.049, 95% CI 1.913-33.868, p=0.004).

Conclusion: In older adults, diarrhea is a symptom associated with COVID-19, and the primary risk factors were diabetes, hypertension, and respiratory diseases.

Keywords: COVID-19, risk factors, SARS-CoV-2


How to Cite

Gabriela , Anguiano-Velazquez Tabata, Granados-Kraulles Jorge Arturo, Santiago-Sanchez Benita, Salcedo-Vargas Mauricio, Delgadillo-Urban Yerendira Margot, Herrerias-Colin Luis Angel, Huato-Andrade Cristhian, Chilpa-Garibay Angel Victor, Garcia-Gonzalez Angelica, Hernandez-Salinas Miguel, Lopez-Ramirez Eduardo, Gutierrez-Salcido Ana Luisa, Téllez-Guzman Irene Judith, Perez-Juarez Luis Daniel, Salmeron-Hilario Exequiel, Ruiz-Martinez Airym, and Lopez-Hernandez Daniel. 2024. “Risk Factors Associated With COVID-19 and Gastrointestinal Manifestations in Older Adult Patients”. Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology 43 (6):178-86. https://doi.org/10.9734/cjast/2024/v43i64399.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, Ren L, Zhao J, Hu Y, et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet. 2020;395(10223): 497–506.

López-Hernández, D. Clinical Presentation and Factors Associated to COVID-19 Disease in Mexican Patients. Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology. 2022;41(1):40–58.

Pappa S, Ntella V, Giannakas T, Giannakoulis VG, Papoutsi E, Katsaounou P. Prevalence of depression, anxiety, and insomnia among healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Brain Behav Immun. 2020;88:901-07.

Zaka A, Shamloo SE, Fiorente P, Tafuri A. COVID-19 pandemic as a watershed moment: A call for systematic psychological health care for frontline medical staff. J Health Psychol. 2020;25 (7):883-87.

Elmezayen MA, Hodeib HA, E. Enaba M, Gawaly AM. Gastrointestinal Tract Endoscopic Evaluation of Iron Deficiency Anemia Patients without Gastrointestinal Manifestations Tanta University Hospitals Experience. J. Adv. Med. Med. Res. 2021; 33(4):26-34. Available:https://journaljammr.com/index.php/JAMMR/article/view/3940

[Accessed on: 2024 Jun. 2];

Clara NS, Finbarrs-Bello E, Ugwuene FO, Maduka L, Odurukwe O, Aneke EI, Ajuba M, Ugwuishi E. The Use of Complete Blood Count as Inflammatory Biomarkers in Patients with Colorectal Cancers in Enugu State University of Science and Technology Teaching Hospital, Parklane Enugu. Asian J. Med. Health. 2022;20 (12):88-117. Available:https://journalajmah.com/index.php/AJMAH/article/view/773

[Accessed on:2024 Jun. 2];

Kopel J, Perisetti A, Gajendran M, Boregowda U, Goyal H. Clinical insights into the gastrointestinal manifestations of COVID-19. Digestive diseases and sciences. 2020;65(7):1932-9.

Young B, Ong X, Kalimuddin S. Epidemiologic features and clinical course of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 in Singapore. JAMA. 2020;323(15):1488– 94.

Diaz P, Espino A. Manifestaciones gastrointestinales de pacientes infectados con el nuevo Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Gastroenterol. latinoam. 2020;31(1):35-8.

Chen N, Zhou M, Dong X, Qu J, Gong F, Han Y, et al. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: A descriptive study. Lancet. 2020;395(10223):507-13.

Chen Q, Quan B, Li X. A report of clinical diagnosis and treatment of nine case of coronavirus disease 2019. J Med Virol. 2020;395:507–13.

Guan W, Zheng N, Yu H, Clinical Characteristics of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in China. N Engl J Med. 2020;382:1708-20.

Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, Ren L, Zhao J, Hu Y, et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet. 2020;395(10223):497-506.

Lin L, Jiang X, Zhang Z, Huang S, Zhang Z, Fang Z, et al. Gastrointestinal symptoms of 95 cases with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Gut. 2020;69(6):997-1001.

Pan L, Mu M, Yang P, Sun Y, Wang R, Yan J, et al. Clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients with digestive symptoms in Hubei, China: A descriptive, cross-sectional, multicenter study. Am J Gastroenterol. 2020;115(5):766-73.

Zhang J, Dong X, Cao Y. Clinical characteristics of 140 patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 in Wuhan, China. Allergy. 2020;75(7):1730-41.

Parasa S, Desai M, Thoguluva Chandrasekar V, Patel HK, Kennedy KF, Roesch T, et al. Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Symptoms and Fecal Viral Shedding in Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA Netw Open. 2020;3(6):e2011335.

Singh G, Priya H, Mishra D, Kumar H, Monga N, Kumari K. Oral manifestations and dental practice recommendations during COVID-19 pandemic. J Family Med Prim Care. 2021;10(1):102-09.

Cheung KS, Hung IFN, Chan PPY, Lung KC, Tso E, Liu R, et al. Gastrointestinal Manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Virus Load in Fecal Samples From a Hong Kong Cohort: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Gastroenterology. 2020;159(1):81-95.

Spiteri G, Fielding J, Diercke M, Campese C, Enouf V, Gaymard A, et al. First cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the WHO European Region, 24 january to 21 february 2020. Euro Surveill. 2020;25(9):2000178.

Ludvigsson J. Systematic review of COVID-19 in children shows milder cases and a better prognosis than adults. Acta Paediatr. 2020;109(6):1088-95.

Khan M, Khan N, Mustagir G, Rana J, Haque R, Rahman M, et al. COVID-19 infection during pregnancy: A systematic review to summarize possible symptoms, treatments, and pregnancy outcomes. medRxiv.

Sanz Segura P, Arguedas Lázaro Y, Mostacero Tapia S, Cabrera Chaves T, Sebastián Domingo JJ. Involvement of the digestive system in covid-19. A review. Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2020;43(8):464-71.

CDC COVID-19 Response Team. Preliminary Estimates of the Prevalence of Selected Underlying Health Conditions Among Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 -United States, February 12-March 28, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020;69(13):382-86.

Lan FY, Filler R, Mathew S, Buley J, Iliaki E, Bruno-Murtha LA, et al. COVID-19 symptoms predictive of healthcare workers' SARS-CoV-2 PCR results. PLoS One. 2020;15(6):e0235460.

INEGI. Characteristics of deaths registered in Mexico during 2020, preliminary. Press Release no. 402/21. 2021;1-5.

Groff A, Kavanaugh M, Ramgobin D, McClafferty B, Aggarwal CS, Golamari R, Jain R. Gastrointestinal Manifestations of COVID-19: A Review of What We Know. Ochsner J. 2021 ;21(2):177-80.

Tian Y, Rong L, Nian W, He Y. Review article: Gastrointestinal features in COVID-19 and the possibility of faecal transmission. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2020;51(9):843-51.

Zhang JJ, Dong X, Cao YY, Yuan YD, Yang YB, Yan YQ, et al. Clinical characteristics of 140 patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 in Wuhan, China. Allergy. 2020;75(7):1730-41.

Fang D, Ma J, Guan J, Wang M, Song Y, Tian D, et al. Manifestations of digestive system in hospitalized patients with novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a single-center, descriptive study [in Chinese]. Chin J Dig. 2020;E005.

Guan WJ, Ni ZY, Hu Y, Liang WH, Ou CQ, He JX, et al. Clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 in China. N Engl J Med. 2020;382(18):1708-20.

Liang W, Feng Z, Rao S, Xiao C, Xue X, Lin Z, et al. Diarrhoea may be underestimated: a missing link in 2019 novel coronavirus. Gut. 2020;69(6):1141-43.

Cholankeril G, Podboy A, Aivaliotis VI, Tarlow B, Pham EA, Spencer SP, et al. High prevalence of concurrent gastrointestinal manifestations in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2: Early experience from California. Gastroenterology. 2020;159(2): 775-77.

Pazgan-Simon M, Rorat M, Buczyńska I, Zińczuk A, Simon K. Gastrointestinal symptoms as the first, atypical indication of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. Pol Arch Intern Med. 2020;130(4):338-39.

Wong SH, Lui RN, Sung JJ. Covid-19 and the digestive system. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2020;35(5):744-48.

Alukal, JJ, Thuluvath PJ. Gastrointestinal Manifestations of COVID-19. In: Pitchumoni, C.S., Dharmarajan, T. (eds) Geriatric Gastroenterology. Springer, Cham; 2021.

Alberta Health Services. COVID-19 Scientific Advisory Group. COVID-19 Symptoms: Symptoms Predictive of a Positive COVID-19 Test, Duration of Symptoms, and Duration of RT-PCR and Viral Culture Positivity.COVID-19 Scientific Advisory Group Rapid Evidence Report; 2021.

Song JY, Yun JG, Noh JY, Cheong HJ, Kim WJ. Covid-19 in South Korea - Challenges of Subclinical Manifestations. N Engl J Med. 2020;382(19):1858-59.

Venancio-Guzmán S, Aguirre-Salado AI, Soubervielle-Montalvo C, Jiménez-Hernández JDC. Assessing the Nationwide COVID-19 Risk in Mexico through the Lens of Comorbidity by an XGBoost-Based Logistic Regression Model. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2022;19(19): 11992.

Borruel N. Interacciones bacterianas con el sistema inmunológico intestinal: inmunomodulación. Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2003;26(Supl 1):13-22.

Lamas-Barreiro JM, Alonso-Suárez M, Fernández-Martín JJ, Saavedra-Alonso JA. Angiotensin II suppression in SARS-CoV-2 infection: a therapeutic approach. Nefrologia (Engl Ed). 2020;40(3):213- 16.

Wan Y, Shang J, Graham R, Baric R.S, Li F. Receptor recognition by novel coronavirus from Wuhan: An analysis based on decade-long structural studies of SARS coronavirus. J Virol. 2020;94: e00127-20.

Yan R, Zhang Y, Li Y, Xia L, Gui Y, Zhou Q. Structural basis for the recognition of SARS-CoV-2 by full-length human ACE2. Science. 2020;367:1444–48.

Higuera-de la Tijera F, Servín-Caamaño S, Pérez-Hernández JL. Gastrointestinal symptoms and disorders related to COVID-19. Revista Médica del Hospital General de México. 2022 ;85(4):169-78.