Physical and Aerodynamic Properties of “Jafra” (Bixa orellana L.) Seeds
Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Volume 41, Issue 33,
Jafra (Bixa orellana L.) seed which is also known as a “annatto” or “achiote” at different parts of the world has the various applications as a natural dye, and condiment in food preparations. During the course of its utilization, jafra seed undergoes various processing operations such as drying, cleaning, grading, conveying, soaking, grinding, etc. which need the various physical and aerodynamic properties for its proper processing. Keeping in view of these needs physical and aerodynamic properties of jafra seeds as a function of moisture at five different levels were determined. The physical and aerodynamic properties of the jafra seeds measured were size and shape, thousand grain weight, bulk density, true density, and angle of repose. The terminal velocity (aerodynamic property) was measured and the drag coefficient was calculated. The above physical and aerodynamic properties of jafra seeds were measured as a function of moisture content in the range of 11.71 to 35.08% d.b. Most of the physical properties of jafra seeds were increased with an increase in moisture content in the experimental moisture content range. However, the bulk density and true density of jafra seeds were decreased with an increase in moisture content. Regression equations for various parameters of jafra seeds as a function of moisture content (M) in the experimental moisture content range were fitted. The regression relationships have high coefficient of determination (R2). The physical and aerodynamic property data in the present research will help in design of the processes and process equipment for jafra seeds processing.
- Angle of repose
- drag coefficient
- jafra seeds
- terminal velocity
How to Cite
Sahay KM, Singh KK. Unit Operations of Agricultural Processing. 1st Edition. Vikas Publishing House Pvt Ltd., New Delhi, India; 1994.
Mohsenin NN. Physical Properties of Plant and Animal Materials. Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, New York; 1970.
Reddy BS, Charavarty A. Physical Properties of Raw and Parboiled Paddy. Biosystems Engineering. 2004; 88(4): 461-466.
Jayas DS, Sokhansanj S, White NDG. Bulk density and porosity of two canola species. Transactions of the ASAE. 1989;32(1):291-294.
Satyanarayana A, Prabhakara Rao PG, Rao DG. Chemistry, processing and toxicology of annatto (Bixa orellana L.). Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2003; 40(2):131-41.
Math RG, Ramesh G, Nagender A, Satyanarayana A. Design and development of annatto (Bixa orellana L.) seed separator machine. Journal of food science and technology. 2016;53(1):703-711.
Morton J. Atlas of Medicinal Plants of Middle America. Springfield, Illinois: 1981;572-573.
Magness JR, Markle GM, Compton CC. Food and feed crops of the United States. Interregional Research Project IR-4, IR Bul1 (Bul.828 New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station); 1971. Accessed http: //www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/Crops/achiote.html.
Passos ML, Oliveira LS, Franca AS, Massarani G. Bixin powder production in conical spouted bed units. Drying technology. 1998; 16(9-10):1855-79.
American Society of Agricultural Engineer (ASAE). S352.2. Moisture measurement – unground grain and seeds; 1998. ASAE standard, 45th Edition, St. Joseph, Michigan, USA.
Mwithiga G, Sifuna MM. Effect of moisture content on the physical properties of three varieties of sorghum seeds. Journal of food Engineering. 2006;75(4):480-6.
Sacilik K, Öztürk R, Keskin R. Some physical properties of hemp seed. Biosystems engineering. 2003;86(2):191-198.
Thompson RA, Issac GW. Porosity determination of grains and seeds with air comparison pycnometer. Transactions of the ASAE. 1967;10(5):693-696.
Nimkar PM, Chattopadhyay PK. Some Physical Properties of Green Gram. Journal of Agricultural Engineerign Research. 2001;80(2):183-189.
Akaaimo DI, Raji AO. Some physical and engineering properties of Prosopis africana seed. Biosystems Engineering. 2006; 95(2):197-205.
Shirkole SS, Kenghe RN, Nimkar PM. Moisture dependent physical properties of soybean. International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology. 2011;3(5):3807-3815.
Izli N. Effect of moisture on the physical properties of three varieties of kenaf seeds. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2015;52(6):3254-63.
Wratten FT, Poole WD, Chesness JL, Bal S, Ramarao V. Physical and thermal properties of rough rice. Transactions of the ASAE. 1969;12:801-803.
Vilche C, Gely M, Santalla E. Physical properties of quinoa seeds. Biosystems engineering. 2003; 86(1):59-65.
Sologubik CA, Campañone LA, Pagano AM, Gely MC. Effect of moisture content on some physical properties of barley. Industrial Crops and Products. 2013; 43: 762-767.
Jafari M, Chegini GR, Khazaei J. Determination of physical properties, moisture absorption process and aerodynamic properties of grain and cluster straw of two wheat cultivars. Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis. 2020;68(5):831-840.
Barnwal P, Kadam DM, Singh KK. Influence of moisture content on physical properties of maize. International Agrophysics. 2012; 26(3).
Sravani M, Boreddy SR, Madhava M, Kumari PL. Physico-Chemical Properties of Four Selected Groundnut Varieties. Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology. 2020;39(34):27-35.
Gojiya DK, Dobariya UD, Pandya PA, Gojiya KM. Studies on physical properties of peanut Seed. Acta Sci. Agric. 2020; 4(3):1-5.
Abstract View: 230 times
PDF Download: 59 times