Main Article Content
Chickpea is one of the most important pulse crops having estimated genome size of 738 Mb. The crop is affected by various biotic and abiotic stresses causing significant yield reduction. During the recent past, some biotic stresses like fusarium wilt, ascochyta blight, botrytis grey mould and abiotic stresses like drought, heat and salinity were found to reduce the productivity, thereafter, these demands for development of high yielding early maturing chickpea varieties with resistance to various biotic and abiotic stresses. Due to the advent of molecular techniques and availability of highly polymorphic and co-dominant microsatellite and other molecular markers, development of genetic maps for chickpea has progressed significantly. Molecular markers are now considered better than morphological and physiological characters for being stable, unaffected by environmental influences and easily detectable irrespective of their growth and development stages. The mapping of genes / QTLs for various traits like flowering time, yield and yield related traits, resistance to fusarium wilt, ascochyta blight, BGM, drought, salinity, heat may be useful in developing improved varieties of chickpea besides deeper understanding of genetics underlying the inheritance of the characters. The knowledge on mapped genes / QTLs for various traits of interest could help in integration of genomics-assisted breeding through various approaches like Marker Assisted Back Crossing, introgression of superior alleles from wild species through Advanced Backcross QTL, Marker Assisted Recurrent Selection and Genome Wide Selection for improving chickpea.
Varshney RK, Song C, Saxena RK, Azam S, Yu S and Sharpe AG, Draft genome sequence of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) provides a resource for trait improvement. Nature Biotechnolology. 2013b;31:240–246.
Ladizinsky G, A new Cicer from Turkey. Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinb. 1975;34:201-202.
Singh KB, Ocampo B. Exploitation of wild Cicer species for yield improvement in chickpea. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 1997;95:418–423.
Millan T, Clarke HJ, Siddique KHM, Buhariwalla HK, Gaur PM, Kumar J, Gil J, Kahl G and Winter P, Chickpea molecular breeding: new tools and concepts. Euphytica. 2006;147(1-2):81-103.
Koebner RM, Powell W and Donini P, Contributions of DNA molecular marker technologies to the genetics and breeding of wheat and barley. Plant breeding reviews. 2001;21:181-220.
Gupta PK, and Rustgi S, Molecular markers from the transcribed/expressed region of the genome in higher plants. Functional & integrative genomics. 2004;4(3):139-162.
Maqbool MA, Aslam M, Ali H and Shah TH, Evaluation of advanced chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) accessions based on drought tolerance indices and SSR markers against different water treatments. Pakistan Journal of Botany. 2016;48:1421-1429.
Gaur PM, Aravind KJ, Varshney RK, Impact of genomic technologies on chickpea breeding strategies. Agronomy. 2012; 2:199-221.
Gaur PM and Slinkard AE, Genetic control and linkage relations of additional isozymes markers in chickpea. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 1990a;80:648–653.
Gaur PM and Slinkard AE, Inheritance and linkage of isozyme coding genes in chickpea. Journal of Heredity. 1990b;81:455–459.
Cho S, Kumar J, Shultz JL, Anupama K, Tefera F and Muehlbauer FJ, Mapping genes for double podding and other morphological traits in chickpea. Euphytica. 2002;128:285–292.
Simon CJ and Muehlbauer FJ, Construction of a chickpea linkage map and its comparison with maps of pea and lentil. Journal of Heredity. 1997;88:115–119.
Millán T, Winter P, Jungling R, Gil J, Rubio J, Cho S, Cobos MJ, Iruela M, Rajesh PN, Tekeoglu M, Kahl G and Muehlbauer FJ, A consensus genetic map of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) based on 10 mapping populations. Euphytica, 2010;175:175–189.
Flandez-Galvez H, Ades PK, Ford R, Pang ECK and Taylor PWJ, QTL analysis for ascochyta blight resistance in an intraspecific population of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 2003;107(7):1257-1265.
Santra DK, Tekeoglu M, Ratnaparkhe M, Kaiser WJ and Muehlbauer FJ, Identification and mapping of QTLs conferring resistance to ascochyta blight in chickpea. Crop Science, 2000;40(6):1606-1612.
Cho S, Chen W and Muehlbauer FJ, Pathotype-specific genetic factors in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) for quantitative resistance to ascochyta blight. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 2004; 109(4): 733-739.
Collard BCY, Pang ECK, Ades PK, Taylor PWJ, Preliminary investigation of QTLs associated with seedling resistance to ascochyta blight from Cicer echinospermum, a wild relative of chickpea. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 2003;107:719–729.
Abbo S, Molina C, Jungmann R, Grusak MA, Berkovitch Z, Kahl K, Winter P and Reifen R, Quantitative trait loci governing carotenoid concentration and weight in seeds of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 2005;111(2):185-195.
Lichtenzveig J, Bonfil DJ, Zhang HB, Shtienberg D and Abbo S, Mapping quantitative trait loci in chickpea associated with time to flowering and resistance to Didymella rabiei the causal agent of Ascochyta blight. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 2006;113(7):1357-1369.
Cobos MJ, Winter P, Kharrat M, Cubero JI, Gil J, Millan T and Rubio J, Genetic analysis of agronomic traits in a wide cross of chickpea. Field Crops Research. 2009;111:130–136.
Hossain S, Ford R, McNeil DL, Pittock C and Pannozzo JF, Development of a selection tool for seed shape and QTL analysis of seed shape with other morphological traits for selective breeding in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Australian Journal of Crop Science. 2010;4:278–288.
Gowda SJM, Radhika P, Mhase LB, Jamadagni BM, Gupta VS and Kadoo NY, Mapping of QTLs governing agronomic and yield traits in chickpea. Journal of Applied Genetics. 2011;52(1): 9-21.
Jamalabadi JG, Saidi A, Karami E, Kharkesh M and Talebi R, Molecular mapping and characterization of genes governing time to ﬂowering, seed weight, and plant height in an intraspeciﬁc genetic linkage map of chickpea (Cicer arietinum). Biochemical Genetics. 2013; 51: 387– 397.
Saxena MS, Bajaj D, Das S, Kujur A, Kumar V, Singh M, Bansal KC, Tyagi AK and Parida SK, An integrated genomic approach for rapid delineation of candidate genes regulating agro-morphological traits in chickpea. DNA Research. 2014; 21(6): 695-710.
Karami E, Talebi R, Kharkesh M and Saidi A, A linkage map of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) based on population from ILC3279× ILC588 crosses: location of genes for time to flowering, seed size and plant height. Genetika. 2015;47(1):253-263.
Das S, Upadhyaya HD, Srivastava R, Bajaj D, Gowda CLL, Sharma S and Parida SK, Genome-wide insertion–deletion (InDel) marker discovery and genotyping for genomics-assisted breeding applications in chickpea. DNA Research. 2015;22(5):377-386.
Winter P, Benko-Iseppon AM, Hüttel B, Ratnaparkhe M, Tullu A, Sonnante G, Pfaff T, Tekeoglu M, Santra D, Sant VJ, Rajesh PN, Kahl G and Muehlbauer FJ, A linkage map of the chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genome based on recombinant inbred lines from a C. arietinum × C. reticulatum cross: Localization of resistance genes for fusarium wilt races 4 and 5. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 2000;101:1155–1163.
Cobos MJ, Rubio J, Strange RN, Moreno MT, Gil J and Millan T, A new QTL for Ascochyta blight resistance in an RIL population derived from an interspecific cross in chickpea. Euphytica. 2006;149(1-2):105-111.
Lal D and Ravikumar RL, Development of genetic linkage map and identification of qtls for agronomic traits in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). International Journal of current microbiology and applied sciences. 2018;7(6): 66-77.
Turner NC, Abbo S, Berger JD, Chaturvedi SK, French RJ, Ludwig C, Mannur DM, Singh SJ and Yadava HS. Osmotic adjustment in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) results in no yield benefit under terminal drought. Journal of Experimental Botany. 2007;58:187–194.
Aryamanesh N, Nelson MN, Yan G, Clarke HJ and Siddique KHM, Mapping a major gene for growth habit and QTLs for ascochyta blight resistance and flowering time in a population between chickpea and Cicer reticulatum. Euphytica. 2010;173(3): 307-319.
Kashiwagi J, Krishnamurthy L, Gaur PM, Upadhyaya HD, Varshney RK, Tobita S. Traits of relevance to improve yield under terminal drought stress in chickpea (C. arietinum L.). Field Crops Research. 2013;145:88–95.
Berger JD, Turner NC, Siddique KHM, Knights EJ, Brinsmead RB, Mock I, Edmondson C and Khan TN, Genotype by environment studies across Australia reveal the importance of phenology for chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) improvement. Aust J Agric Res. 2004;55:1–14.
Berger JD, Ali M, Basu PS, Chaudhary BD, Chaturvedi SK, Deshmukh, PS, Dharmaraj, PS, Dwivedi SK, Gangadhar GC, Gaur PM, Kumar J, Pannu RK, Siddique KHM, Singh DN, Singh DP, Singh SJ, Turner NC, Yadava HS and Yadav SS, Genotype by environment studies demonstrate the critical role of phenology in adaptation of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) to high and low yielding environments of India. Field Crops Research. 2006;98:230–244.
Gaur PM, Krishnamurthy L, Kashiwagi J, Improving drought-avoidance root traits in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.): current status of research at ICRISAT. Plant Prod. Sci. 2008a;11:3–11.
Gaur PM, Kumar J, Gowda CLL, Pande S, Siddique KHM, Khan TN, Warkentin TD, Chaturvedi SK, Than AM, Ketema D. Breeding chickpea for early phenology: perspectives, progress and prospects. In: Kharkwal MC(ed) Food legumes for nutritional security and sustainable agriculture, vol 2. Indian Society of genetics and Plant Breeding, New Delhi. 2008b;39–48.
Nayak SN, Zhu H, Varghese N, Choi HK, Datta S, Horres R, Jüngling R and Singh J, Integration of novel SSR and gene-based marker loci in the chickpea genetic map and establishment of new anchor points with Medicago truncatula genome. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 2010;120:1415-1441.
Gujaria N, Kumar A, Dauthal, Dubey A, Hiremath P, Bhanu Prakash A, Farmer A, Bhide M., Shah T and Gaur PM, Development and use of genic molecular markers (GMMs) for construction of a transcript map of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 2011;122:1577-1589.
Thudi M, Bohra A, Nayak SN, Varghese N, Shah TM, Penmetsa RV, Thirunavukkarasu N and Gudipati S, Novel SSR markers from BAC end sequences, DArT arrays and a comprehensive genetic map with 1,291 marker loci for chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). PLoS One. 2011;6:272-275.
Choudhary S, Gaur R, Gupta S and Bhati, S, EST-derived genic molecular markers: development and utilization for generating an advanced transcript map of chickpea. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 2012;124:1449-1462.
Hiremath PJ, Kumar A, Penmetsa RV, Farmer A, Schlueter JA, Chamarthi SK, Whaley AM, Carrasquiila-Garcia N, Gaur PM, Hari D, Upadhyaya, Shah,, TM, Cook DR, Rajeev K Varshney and Kavi Kishor PB, Large‐scale development of cost‐effective SNP marker assays for diversity assessment and genetic mapping in chickpea and comparative mapping in legumes. Plant Biotechnology Journal. 2012;10(6):716-732.
Rehman AU, Malhotra RS, Bett K, Tar’an B, Bueckert R and Warkentin TD, Mapping QTL associated with traits affecting grain yield in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under terminal drought stress. Crop Science. 2011;51:450-463.
Mallikarjuna BP, Samineni S, Thudi M, Sajja SB, Khan AW, Patil A, Viswanatha KP, Varshney RK and Gaur PM. Molecular Mapping of Flowering Time Major Genes and QTLs in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Frontiers in Plant Science. 2017; 8:1140.
Upadhyaya HD, Bajaj D, Das S, Saxena MS, Badon, S, Kumar V and Parida SK, A genome-scale integrated approach aids in genetic dissection of complex flowering time trait in chickpea. Plant Molecular Biology. 2015;89(4-5): 403-420.
Cobos MJ, Rubio J, Fernandez-Romero MD, Garza R, Moreno MT, Millan T and Gil J. Genetic analysis of seed size, yield and days to flowering in a chickpea recombinant inbred line population derived from a Kabuli x Desi cross. Annals of Applied Biology. 2007;151:33–42.
Varshney RK, Thudi M, Nayak SN, Gaur PM, Kashiwagi J, Krishnamurthy L, Jaganathan D, Koppolu J, Bohra A, Tripathi S, Rathore A, Jukanti AK, Jayalakshmi V, Vemula A, Singh S, Yasin M, Sheshshayee MS and Viswanatha KP. Genetic dissection of drought tolerance in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 2014;127:445–462.
Jingade PK, Ravikumar RL, QTL Mapping and Identification of QTLs Linked to Yield and Yield Attributing Traits in Chickpea. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., India, Sect. B Biol. Sci., 2019;89:815–821.
Li H, Rodda M, Gnanasambandam A, Aftab M, Redden R, Hobson K, Rosewarne G, Michael M, Sukhjiwan K and Anthony S, Breeding for biotic stress resistance in chickpea: progress and prospects. Euphytica, 2015; 204(2): 257-288.
Verma S, Gupta S, Nitesh B, Kumar T, Bharadwaj C and Bhatia S, High-density linkage map construction and mapping of seed trait QTLs in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) using Genotyping-by Sequencing (GBS). Scientific reports. 2015;5:17512: 1-14.
Sharma M, Nagavardhini A, Thudi M, Ghosh R, Pande S, Varshney RK, et al. Development of DArT markers and assessment of diversity in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris, wilt pathogen of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). BMC Genomics. 2014;15:454: 1-14.
Jiménez-Díaz RM, Alcalá-Jiménez AR, Hervás A and Trapero-Casas JL, Pathogenic variability and host resistance in the Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceris / Cicer arietinum pathosystem. In: Proc Eur Semin Fusarium Mycotoxins Taxon Pathog Host Resist.1993;3rd:87-94) Hod Rósl Aklim Nasien, Poland.
Sharma KD and Muehlbauer FJ, Fusarium wilt of chickpea: physiological specialization, genetics of resistance and resistance gene tagging. Euphytica. 2007;157(1-2):1-14.
Gowda SJM, Radhika P, Kadoo NY, Mhase LB and Gupta VS, Molecular mapping of wilt resistance genes in chickpea. Mol. Breed. 2009;24:177–183.
Halila I, Cobos MJ, Rubio J, Millán T, Kharrat M, Marrakchi M, Gil J, Tagging and mapping a second resistance gene for Fusarium wilt race 0 in chickpea. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. 2009;124:87–92.
Halila I, Rubio J, Millán T, Gil J, Kharrat M, Marrakchi M, Resistance in chickpea (Cicer arietinum) to Fusarium wilt race “0”. Plant Breeding. 2010;129:563–566.
Mayer MS, Tullu A, Simon CJ, Kumar J, Kaiser WJ, Kraft JM, Muehlbauer FJ, Development of a DNA marker for fusarium wilt resistance in Chickpea. Crop Science. 1997;37:1625-1629.
Cobos MJ, Fernández MJ, Rubio J, Kharrat M, Moreno MT, Gil J and Millán T, A linkage map of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) based on populations from Kabuli × Desi crosses: Location of genes for resistance to fusarium wilt race 0. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 2005;110:1347–1353.
Garg T, Mapping of quantitative trait loci for resistance to ascochyta blight, botrytis grey mould and fusarium wilt in chickpea. Ph.D. thesis submitted to Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana; 2012.
Garg T, Mallikarjuna BP, Thudi M, Srinivasan S, Singh S, Sandhu JS, Kaur L, Singh I, Asmita S, Basandrai AK, Basandrai D, Varshney RK and Gaur PM, Identification of QTLs for resistance to Fusarium wilt and Ascochyta blight in a recombinant inbred population of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Euphytica. 2018;214-45: 1-11.
Pandey S, Siddique KHM, Kishore GK, Bayaa B, Gaur PM, Gowda CLL, Bretag TW and Crouch JH, Ascochyta blight of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.): A review of biology, pathogenicity and disease management. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research. 2005;56:317-332.
Sharma M and Ghosh R, An Update on Genetic Resistance of Chickpea to Ascochyta Blight, Agronomy. 2016;6(1):18.
Haware MP, Diseases of chickpea. In: The pathology of food and pasture legumes’ (Allen D.J., Lenne J.M., eds.). 1998;473-516.
Anuradha C, Gaur PM, Pand, S, Gali KK, Ganesh M, Kumar J and Varshney RK, Mapping QTL for resistance to botrytis grey mould in chickpea. Euphytica. 2011;182(1):1-9.
Sachdeva S, Dawar S, Rani U, Patil BS, Soren KR, Singh, S., Sanwal SK, Chauhan SK and Bharadwaj C, Identification of SSR markers linked to Botrytis grey mould resistance in chickpea (Cicer arietinum). Phytopathologia Mediterrane. 2019;58(2):283-292.
Ranjana, Anjana A, Panwar RK and Verma SK, Molecular tagging of botrytis grey mould disease in chickpea. Legume Research. 2018;42(5):710-714.
Ahmad F, Gaur PM and Croser J, Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) In: Singh R, Jauhar PP (eds), Genetic Resources, Chromosome Engineering and Crop Improvement – Grain Legumes. CRC Press. 2005;1:187–217.
Ludlow MM and Muchow RC, A Critical Evaluation of Traits for Improving Crop Yields in Water-Limited Environments. Advances in Agronomy. 1990;43:107-153.
Saxena NP, Management of drought in chickpea-a holistic approach. In N.P. Saxena ed., Management of Agricultural Drought-Agronomic and Genetic Options. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Lid, New Delhi. 2003;103-122.
Jaganathan D, Thudi M, Kale S, Azam S, Roorkiwal S, Gaur PM, Kishor PBK, Nguyen H, Sutton T and Varshney RK, Genotyping-by-sequencing based intra-specific genetic map refines a ‘‘QTL-hotspot” region for drought tolerance in chickpea. Molecular Genetics and Genomics. 2015;290:559-571.
Pradeep Kumar, Identification of QTL(s) for terminal drought tolerance in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Ph.D. thesis submitted to Chaudhary Charan Singh Agricultural University, Hisar; 2016.
Hamwieh A, Imtiaz M and Malhotra RS, Multi-environment QTL analyses for drought-related traits in a recombinant inbred population of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 2013;126:1025–1038.
Flowers TJ, Gaur PM, Gowda CLL, Krishnamurthy L, Srinivasan S, Siddique KHM, Turner, NC, Vadez V, Varshney RK and Colmer TD, Salt sensitivity in chickpea. Plant Cell Environ. 2010;33(4):490–509.
Pushpavalli R, Krishnamurthy L, Thudi M, Gaur PM, Rao VM , Siddique KHM, Colmer TD, Turner NC, Varshney RK and Vadez V, Two key genomic regions harbour QTLs for salinity tolerance in ICCV 2 × JG 11 derived chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) recombinant inbred lines. BMC Plant Biology. 2015;15(124):2-15.
Soren KR, Praveen M, Kumar N, Barmukh R, Singh M, Bharadwaj C, Sharma PC, Singh S, Aditi B, Singh J, Kumar S, Pal M, Priya S, Mann APR, Rao SS, Shanmugavadivel PS, Siddique KHM, Singh NP, Roorkiwal M and Rajeev K Varshney. Genetic Dissection and Identification of Candidate Genes for Salinity Tolerance Using Axiom®CicerSNP Array in Chickpea. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2014;21:1-17.
Vadez V, Krishnamurthy L, Thudi M, Colmer TD, Turner NC, Siddique KHM. Gaur PM and Varshney RK, Assessment of ICCV 2 × JG 62 chickpea progenies shows sensitivity of reproduction to salt stress and reveals QTLs for seed yield and seed number. Molecular Breeding. 2012; 30: 9-21.
Pranob JP, Srinivasan S, Mahendar T, Sobhan BS, Abhishek R, Roma RD, Aamir WK, Sushil KC, Lavanya GR, Varshney RK and Gaur P.M. Molecular mapping of QTLs for heat tolerance in chickpea. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2018;19:1-20.
Huyghe C, Genetics and genetic modifications of plant architecture in grain legumes: a review. Agronomie. 1998;18(5-6): 383-411.
Reinhardt D and Kuhlemeier C, Plant architecture. EMBO Reports. 2002;3(9):846-851.
Harshavardhana YS, Hegde V, Tripathi S, Raje RS, Jain PK, Gaikwad K, Bharadwaj C, Kumar R, Singh R, Sharma M and Chauhan SK, Genetics of semi-determinacy and identification of molecular marker linked to Dt1 locus in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding. 2019;79(1S):270-275.
Sharma KD, Winter P, Kahl G and Muehlbauer FJ, Molecular mapping of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris race 3 resistance gene in chickpea. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 2004;108(7):1243-1248.
Benko-Iseppon AM, Winter P, Huettel B, Staginnus C, Muehlbauer FJ, Kahl G, Molecular markers closely linked to fusarium resistance genes in chickpea show significant alignments to pathogenesis-related genes located on Arabidopsis chromosomes 1 and 5. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 2003;107:379–386.
Udupa SM and Baum M, Genetic dissection of pathotype-specific resistance to ascochyta blight disease in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) using microsatellite markers. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 2003;106(7):1196-1202.
Iruela M, Rubio J, Barro F, Cubero JI, Millán T and Gil J, Detection of two quantitative trait loci for resistance to ascochyta blight in an intra-specific cross of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.): development of SCAR markers associated with resistance. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 2006;112(2):278-287.
Tar’an B, Warkentin TD, Tullu A and Vandenberg A, Genetic mapping of ascochyta blight resistance in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) using a simple sequence repeat linkage map. Genome. 2007;50(1):26-34.
Anbessa Y, Taran B, Warkentin TD, Tullu A and Vandenberg A, Genetic analyses and conservation of QTL for ascochyta blight resistance in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 2009;119(4):757-765.
Kanouni H, Taleei A, Peyghambari SA, Okhovat SM, Baum M and Abang M, QTL analysis for ascochyta blight resistance in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) using microsatellite markers. Seed Plant Journal of Agricultural Research. 2009;25:109-127.
Sabbavarapu MM, Sharma M, Chamarthi SK, Swapna N, Rathore A, Thudi M, Gaur PM, Pande S, Singh S, Kaur L and Varshney RK, Molecular mapping of QTLs for resistance to Fusarium wilt (race 1) and Ascochyta blight in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Euphytica. 2013;193(1):121-133.