Mulches and Their Impact on Floor Management and Performance of Fruit Crops: A Review

Main Article Content

Vijay P. Singh
Rajkumar Jat
Virendra Kumar
Ravinder singh

Abstract

Apart from the various innovations and technologies developed, productivity of most of the fruit crops in India remains at a lower level when compared to the major producers and developed countries. In the present era of health awareness, demand of the quality fruits, classified as protective foods, has increased globally. The ever-growing demand for the quality fruits and market competition has been compelling the farmers to produce more but quality fruits. Use of mulches is an age old practice and also one the cheapest methods under protected cultivation technologies which could help the orchardists to increase the production with higher quality. Looking to the several biotic and abiotic challenges in fruit production, adoption of mulching technique at large scale might be helpful to mitigate several problems considering the advantages of mulching. Several studies have shown that mulching in fruit crops has positive impact on soil moisture status, soil temperature along with weed suppression thus on rhizosphere of the plants. These rhizospheric conditions favour the vegetative as well as yield and quality parameters of the fruit crops. In this paper, an attempt has been made to review the impact of mulching on floor management (soil moisture status, soil temperature and weed suppression) as well as growth, yield and quality characteristics in fruit crops with the help of appropriate findings available in literature.

Keywords:
Mulch, fruit crops, soil moisture, soil temperature, yield, quality.

Article Details

How to Cite
Singh, V. P., Jat, R., Kumar, V., & singh, R. (2020). Mulches and Their Impact on Floor Management and Performance of Fruit Crops: A Review. Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, 39(36), 62-78. https://doi.org/10.9734/cjast/2020/v39i3631074
Section
Review Article

References

Saxena M. Horticulture Statistics at a Glance. Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare, Deptt. of Agriculture, Corporation and Farmers Welfare. Chandu Press, New Delhi; 2018.

Singh S. Effect of mulching on tree growth, yield and fruit quality of Umran Ber. M. Sc (Hort.) Thesis, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, India; 2007.

Singh VP, Singh PK, Bhatt L. Mulch off-season vegetables with black plastic for higher productivity and to trap early market in mid-hills of Garhwal Himalayas. Progressive Research. 2013;8(2):233- 236.

Iyengar KS, Gahrotra A, Mishra A, Kaushal KK, Dutt M. Practical manual on plastic mulching. Edited technical manual published by National Committee on Plasticulture Applications in Horticulture (NCPAH). 2011;16.

Singh B, Kumar M, Singh GC. Effect of different plastic mulches on growth and yield of winter tomato. Indian Journal of Horticulture. 2005;62(2):200-202.

Anikwe MAN, Mbah CN, Ezeaku PI, Onyia VN. Tillage and plastic mulch effects on soil properties and growth and yield of cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta) on an altisol in Southeastern Nigeria. Soil Tillage Research. 2007;93(2):264-272.

Singh AK, Singh S, Apparao VV, Meshram DT. Effect of mulching on soil properties, growth and yield of NA-7 aonla (Emblica Officinalies) in semi arid ecosystem. Indian Journal of Agriculture Sciences. 2008;78(3):193-197.

Singh VP, Singh PK. Earliness and improved productivity in summer squash and tomato using plastic mulches through front line demonstrations in mid-hills of Uttarakhand. In: Proceedings of National Symposium on Conservation Horticulture. 2010;302-303.

Singh VP, Singh PK, Bhatt L. Off-season vegetable cultivation under plastic mulch for resource conservation and enhancing productivity in Uttarakhand hills. In: Proceedings of National Workshop cum Seminar on Advances in Precision Horticulture. 2012;95-98.

Pratima P, Sharma N. Effect of irrigation levels and in situ moisture conservation on vegetative growth, flowering and fruiting characteristics of kiwifruit cv. Allison. International Journal of Farm Sciences. 2014;4(4):64-71.

Bhatt L, Rana R, Uniyal SP, Singh VP. Effect of mulch materials on vegetative characters, yield and economics of summer squash (Cucurbita pepo) under rainfed mid-hill condition of Uttarakhand. Vegetable Science. 2011;38(2):165-168.

Singh VK, Singh G, Bhriguvanshi S. Effect of polyethylene mulch on soil nutrient level and root, leaf and fruiting characteristics of mango (Mangifera indica). Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 2009;79:411-417.

Singh VP, Singh CP, Tyagi M. Stress management and productivity enhancement in fruit crops through plastic mulching. In: Proceedings of National Agronomy Congress on Redesigning Agronomy for Nature Conservation and Economic Empowerment. 2018;660.

Paolo P, Sanguankeo R, Leon G, Julian M. Impact of weed management practices on grapevine growth and yield components. Weed Science. 2009;57:103-107.

Singh AK, Singh S, Rao VVA, Bagle BG, More TA. Efficacy of organic mulches on soil properties, earthworm population, growth and yield of aonla cv. NA-7 in semi-arid ecosystem. Indian Journal of Horticulture. 2010;67:124-128.

Lalruatsangi E, Hazarika BN. Effect of various mulching materials on crop production and soil health in acid lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle). International journal of environment, agriculture and biotechnology. 2018;11(2):311-317.

Singh VP, Singh PK, Bhatt L. Use of plastic mulch for enhancing water productivity of off-season vegetables in terraced land in Chamoli district of Uttarakhand, India. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation. 2014a;13(1):68-72.

Lamont WJ. Vegetable production using plasticulture. Food and Fertilizer Technology Centre. 2001. Availalble:http://www.agnet.org/library/article/eb476.html/.

Hussain S, Sharma MK, Tundup P, Ali M, Hussain S, Bashir D. Effect of orchard floor management practices on growth, yield and quality attributes of apple cv. Royal Delicious. International Journal of Pure and Applied Bioscience. 2017;5(3):944-952.

Lamont WJ. The use of different coloured mulches for yield and earliness. In: Proceedings of The New England Vegetable and Berry Growers Conference and Trade Show, Sturbridge, Mass. 1999;299-302.

Mohanty S, Sonkar RK, Marathe RA. Effect of mulching on Nagpur mandarin cultivation in drought prone region of Central India. Indian Journal of Soil Conservation. 2002;30:286–289.

Singh VP, Singh PK, Bhatt L. Plastic mulches for high yield in vegetables: A success story of Uttarakhand hills. In: Proceedings of National Workshop cum Seminar on Recent Plasticulture Approaches Towards Precision Horticulture. 2014c;126-129.

Rathore AC, Jayaprakash J, Dubey RK, Kumar S. Improving fruit productivity of kinnow mandarin (Citrus reticulate Blanco) through rainwater conservation practice for sloppy degraded lands of Doon valley. Progressive Horticulture. 2012;44(1):170-173.

Sharma JC, Kathiravan G. Effect of mulches on soil hydrothermal regimes and growth of plum in mid hill region of Himachal Pradesh. Indian Journal of Horticulture. 2009;66:465-471.

Maji S, Das BC. Response of mulching on fruit quality and yield of guava (Psidium guajava L.). Journal of Environment and Ecology. 2008;26(4):1630-1631.

Silva VPR, Campos JHB, Azevedo PV. Water use efficiency and evapotranspiration of mango orchard grown in north-eastern region of Brazil. Scientia Horticulture. 2009;120(4):467-472.

Rao BN, Jha AK, Deo C, Kumar S, Roy SS, Ngachan SV. Effect of irrigation and mulching on growth, yield and quality of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims.). Journal of Crop and Weed. 2013;9(1):94-98.

Shukla AK, Pathak RK, Tiwari RP, Nath V. Influence of irrigation and mulching on plant growth and leaf nutrient status of aonla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) under sodic soils. Journal of Applied Horticulture. 2000;2(1):37-38.

Castaneda LMF, Antunes LEC, Ristow WC, Carpenedo RS. Utilization of different mulching types in strawberry production. Acta Horticulturae. 2009;842: 111-113.

Sharma DP, Chakma J, Sharma N, Singh N. Effect of different orchard management practices on the growth and production of rejuvenated of pomegranates (Punica granatum L.) cv. Kandhari Kabuli. Journal of Applied and Natural Science. 2017;9(1):577-581.

Kumar V, Bhat AK, Sharma V, Gupta N, Sohan P, Singh VB. Effect of different mulches on soil moisture, growth and yield of Eureka Lemon (Citrus limon Burm.) under rainfed condition. Indian Journal of Dryland Agricultural Research and Development. 2015;30(1):83-88.

Kumar S, Dey P. Effects of different mulches and irrigation methods on root growth, nutrient uptake, water-use efficiency and yield of strawberry. Scientia Horticulturae. 2011;127(3):318-324.

Gan Y, Siddique KHM, Turner NC, Li XG, Niu JY, Yang C, Liu L, Chai Q. Ridge-furrow mulching systems- An innovative technique for boosting crop productivity in semiarid rain-fed environments. Advances in Agronomy. 2013;118:429-476.

Kumar V, Singh VB, Sohan P, Khajuria K. Effect of various mulches on soil moisture content, soil properties, growth and yield of kinnow under rainfed condition. International Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 2014;10(1):225-229.

Pandey S, Singh J, Maurya IB. Effect of black polythene mulch on growth and yield of Winter Dawn strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) by improving root zone temperature. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 2015;85(9):1219-1222.

Bons HK, Rattanpal HS, Brar AS. Influence of different mulches on growth and productivity of kinnow mandarin. Agricultural Research Journal. 2018;55(4):765-767.

Ramakrishna A, Tam HM, Wani SP, Long TD. Effect of mulch on soil temperature, moisture,weed infestation and yield of groundnut in northern Vietnam. Field Crops Research. 2006;95(2-3):115-125.

Das B, Vishal N, Jana BR, Dey P, Pramanick KK, Kishor DK. Performance of strawberry cultivars grown on different mulching materials under sub-humid subtropical plateau conditions of Eastern India. Indian Journal of Horticulture. 2007;62:136-143.

Sturm K, Koron D, Stampar F. The composition of fruit of different strawberry varieties depending on maturity stage. Food Chemistry. 2003;83:417–422.

Liu SY, Zhang LF, Li ZH, Jia JM, Fan FC, Shi YF. Effects of plastic mulch on soil moisture and temperature and limiting factors to yield increase for dryland spring maize in the North China. Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology. 2014;25(11):3197-3206.

Barman P, Srivastava KK, Adak T. Response of guava cv. Lalit to plastic mulch, fertigation and micro-nutrient spray under raised bed. Indian Journal of Agriculture and Allied Sciences. 2017;3(4):1-8.

Sahoo SC. Plastic mulching: an avenue to increase input use efficiency in horticultural crops. In Precision Farming in Horticulture: Approaches and Strategies. In: Swain, S.C. editors. Narendra Publishing House, Delhi;2014.

Diaz-Perez JC. Root zone temperature, plant growth and yield of broccoli (Brassica oleracea (Plenck) var. italica) as affected by plastic film mulches. Scientia Horticulturae. 2009;123:156-163.

Thakur A, Singh H, Jawandha SK, Kaur T. Mulching and herbicides in peach: Weed biomass, fruit yield, size, and quality. Biological Agriculture & Horticulture. 2012;28(4):280-290.

Shirgure PS, Sonkar AK, Singh S, Panighrahi P. Effect of different mulches on soil moisture conservation, weed reduction, growth and yield of drip irrigated Nagpur mandarin (Citrus reticulata). Indian Journal of Agriculture Sciences. 2003;73(3):148-152.

Tariq MS, Bano A, Qureshi KM. Response of strawberry (Fragaria annanasa) cv. Chandler to different mulching materials. Science, Technology and Development. 2016;35(3):117-122.

Galletta GJ, Draper AD, Swartz HJ. Newever bearing strawberries. Horticultural Science. 1981;16:726.

Reddy YTN, Khan MM. Effect of mulching treatments on growth, water relations and fruit yield of sapota (Achras sapota). Indian Journal of Agriculture Sciences. 1998;68(10):657-660.

Sakariya KK, Satasiya RM, Satasiya VD, Sapariya PS. Performance of plastic mulch on papaya crop. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences. 2018;7(3):3243-3251.

Gupta R, Acharya CL. Effect of mulch induced hydrothermal regime on root growth, water use efficiency, yield and quality of strawberry. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science. 1993;41(1):17-25.

Decoteau DR, Kasperbauer MJ, Hunt PG. Bell paper plant development over mulches of diverse colors. Horticultural Science. 1990;25(4):460-462.

Deb P, Sangma D, Prasad BVG, Bhowmick N, Dey K. Effect of different mulches on vegetative growth of strawberry (cv. tioga) under red and lateritic zone of West Bengal. International Journal of Basic and Applied Biology. 2014;2(2):77-80.

Lamont WJ. Plastic mulches for the production of vegetable crops. Horticulture Technology. 1993;13(2):276-284.

Awasthi OP, Singh IS, Sharma BD. Effect of mulch on soil-hydrothermal regimes, growth and fruit yield of brinjal under arid conditions. Indian Journal of Horticulture. 2006;63(2):192-194.

Byun JK, DoJ H, Chang KH. The effects of black polyethylene film and rice straw mulches on vegetative growth and mineral element content of young jujube trees. Journal of Korean Society for Horticultural Science. 1991;32:81-86.

Faber BA, Downer AJ, Menge JA. Effects of mulch on Avocado and Citrus. In: Proceeding of 5th World Avocado Congress 2003;719-724.

Sharma C, Khokhar UU. Effect of different mulches and herbicides on growth, yield and quality of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) cv. Chandler. In: Temperate Horticulture: Current Scenario. New India Publishing Agency, New Delhi (India); 2006.

Manoj B, Sindhu S, Preeti S, Prince. Effect of various mulches on growth, yield and quality of kinnow. The Bioscan. 2015;10(3):1379-1382.

Singh R, Sharma RR, Goyal RK. Interactive effects of planting time and mulching on ‘Chandler’ strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.). Scientia Horticulture. 2007;111:344-351.

Kumar R, Tandon V, Mir MM. Impact of different mulching materials on growth, yield and quality of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.). Progressive Horticulture. 2012;44(2):234-236.

Singh VP, Singh PK, Bhatt L. Effect of coloured plastic mulches on earliness, water productivity and production economics of summer squash under high hills of North-West Himalayas. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation. 2014b;13(4):344-348.

Panigrahi P, Srivastava AK, Huchche AD. Optimizing growth, yield and water use efficiency (WUE) in Nagpur mandarin (Citrus reticulata) under drip irrigation and plastic mulch. Indian Journal of Soil Conservation. 2010;38(1):42-45.

Aulakh PS, Sur HS. Effect of mulching on soil temperature, soil moisture, weed population, growth and yield in pomegranate. Progressive Horticulture. 1999;31(3-4):131-133.

Agrawal N, Agrawal S. Effect of drip irrigation and mulches on growth and yield of banana cv. Dwarf Cavendish. Indian Journal of Horticulture. 2000;62(3):238-240.

Hassan GH, Godara AK, Kumars J, Huchche AD. Effect of different mulches on yield and quality of ‘Oso Grand’ strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa). Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 2000;70(3):184- 185.

El-Tawell AA, Farag AA. Mulching implication on productivity and fruit quality of pomegranate growth in sandy soil. Egyptian Journal of Horticulture. 2015;42(1):367-391.

Melgarejo P, Calín-Sánchez A, Hernández F, Szumny A, Martínez JJ, Legua P, Martínez R, Carbonell-Barrachina AA. Chemical, functional and quality properties of Japanese plum (Prunus salicina Lindl.) as affected by mulching. Scientia Horticulture. 2012;134:114–120.

Tiwari KN, Kumar M, Santosh DT, Singh VK, Maji MK, Karan AK. Influence of drip irrigation and plastic mulch on yield of sapota (Achras zapota) and soil nutrients. Irrigation & Drainage Systems Engineering. 2014;3(1):1-16.

Abouziena HF, Hafez OM, El-Metwally IM, Sharma SD, Singh M. Comparison of weed suppression and mandarin fruit yield and quality obtained with organic mulches, synthetic mulches, cultivation and glyphosate. Horticultural Science. 2008;43(3):795-799.

Kaundal GS, Singh S, Chanana YR, Grewal SS. Effect of glyphosate and plastic mulch on weed control in peach orchard. Journal of Research Punjab Agriculture University. 1995;32:32-38.

Sureshkumar P, Choudhary VK, Bhagawati R. Influence of mulching and irrigation level on water-use efficiency, plant growth and quality of strawberry (Fragaria ananassa). Indian Journal of Agriculture Sciences. 2012;82(2):127-133.

Bakshi P, Bhat DJ, Wali VK, Sharma A, Iqbal M. Growth, yield and quality of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) cv. Chandler as influenced by various mulching materials. African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014;9(7):701-706.

El-Kader AM, Saleh M, Ali MA. Effect of soil moisture levels and some anti-transpirants on vegetative growth, leaf mineral content, yield and fruit quality of Williams Banana plants. Journal of Applied Sciences Research. 2006;2:1248-1255.

Mukherjee A, Kundu M, Sarkar S. Role of irrigation and mulch on yield, evapotranspiration rate and water use pattern of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.). Agricultural Water Management. 2010;98(1):182-189.

Neilsen GH, Hogue EJ, Forge T, Neilsen D. Mulches and biosolids affect vigour, yield and leaf nutrition of fertigated high density apple. Horticultural Science. 2003;38(1):41-45.

Schales FD, Sheldrake R. Mulch effect on soil conditions and tomato plant response. In: Proceedings of IV National Agricultural Plastic Congress. 1963;78-90.

Singh M, Bhatt L, Singh VP, Maurya SK, Singh AK. Effect of transplanting dates and mulching materials on growth, yield and economics of summer squash (Cucurbita pepo) in Uttarakhand hills. Indian Journal of Agriculture Sciences. 2015;85(12):1529-1532.

Patra RK, Debnath S, Das BC, Hasan MA. Effect of mulching on growth and fruit yield of guava cv. Sardar. Orissa Journal of Horticulture. 2004;32(2):38-42.

Chattopadhyay PK, Patra SC. Effect of soil covers on growth, flowering and yield of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.). South Indian Horticulture. 1992;40(6):309-312.

Paul JC, Mishra JN, Pradhan E. Response of banana to drip irrigation and mulching in Coastal Orissa. Journal of Agricultural Engineering. 2008;45(4):44-49.

Bal JS, Singh S. Effect of mulching material and herbicides on tree growth, yield and fruit quality of ber. Indian Journal of Horticulture. 2011;68(2):189-192.

Jagtap DD, Wachal KN. Influence of irrigation and mulches on flowering and yield of ber (Zizyphus mauritiana). South Indian Horticulture. 1993;41(2):111-112.

Kumar J, Rana SS, Rehalia AS, Verma HS. Long term effects of orchard soil management practices on growth, yield and fruit quality of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.). Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 1999;69:355-358.

Ali A, Gaur GS. Effect of organic mulches on runner production of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.). Asian Journal of Biological Sciences. 2013;8(2):175-179.

Rannu P, Ahmed R, Siddiky A, Ali AS, Murad KF, Sarkar PK. Effect of irrigation and mulch on the yield and water use of strawberry. International Journal of Agronomy; 2018. Available:https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/2903706

Mage F. Black plastic mulching compared to other orchard soil management methods. Scientia Horticulturae. 1982;16(2):131-136.

Das K, Sau S, Sarkar T, Dutta P. Effect of organic mulches on yield, physico-chemical qualities and leaf mineral composition of litchi cv. Bombai in Indo-Gangetic plain of West Bengal. Journal of Crop and Weed. 2016;12:67-69.

Prajapati P, Sahu GD, Prajapati M. Studies on effect of fertigation level and response of mulching on growth and yield parameters of papaya (Carica papaya L.) under Chhattisgarh plains. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 2017;1:614-618.

Pande KK, Dimri DC, Kamboj P. Effect of various mulches on growth, yield and quality attributes of apple. Indian Journal of Horticulture. 2005;62(2):145-147.

Bhanukar M, Sindhu SS, Preeti, Prince. Effect of various mulches on growth, yield and quality of Kinnow. The Bioscan. 2015;10(3):1379-1382.

Smith TJ. Weed management in orchards. Extension bulletin, Washington State University, 400 Washington, Wenatchee, WA 98801 at extension.wsu.edu > treefruit > orchardweedmgmt.

Verdu AM, Mas MT. Mulching as an alternative technique for weed management in mandarin orchard tree rows. Agronomy for Sustainable Development. 2007;27:367-375.

Seidhom SH, Rahman AE. Prediction of traditional climatic changes effect on pomegranate trees under desert condition in El-Maghara. Egypt Journal of American Science. 2011;7(5):268-280.

Hieke S, George AP, Rasmussent T, Ladders P. Effect of plastic soil mulch and cloche on fruit growth and development of low-chill peach cv. Florada Prince (Prunus persica L.) in subtropical Australia. Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology. 1997;72(2):187-193.

Mustaffa MM. Effect of mulching and shade on yield, quality and leaf nutrient composition of Coorg mandarin. Indian Journal of Horticulture. 1989;46(3):344-347.

Badiyala SD, Aggarwal GC. Note on the effect of mulching on strawberry production. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 1981;51(11):832-834.

Lordan J, Pascual M, Villar JM, Fonseca F, Papio J, Montilla V, Rufat J. Use of organic mulch to enhance water-use efficiency and peach production under limiting soil conditions in a three-year-old orchard. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015;13(4):e0904. 5424/sjar/2015134-6694.

Lordan J, Pascual M, Villar JM, Fonseca F, Papio J, Montilla V, Rufat J. Use of organic mulch to enhance water-use efficiency and peach production under limiting soil conditions in a three-year-old orchard. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research. 2015;13(4):e0904. 5424/sjar/2015134-6694.

Chan KY, Fahey DJ, Newell M, Barchia I. Using composted mulch in vineyards effects on grape yield and quality. International Journal of Fruit Science. 2010;10:441-453.

Jack CV, Brind WD, Smith R. Mulching Technology. Comm. No. 49, Commonwealth Bulletin of Soil Science; 1955.

Kamal S, Singh AK. Effect of black plastic mulch on soil temperature and tomato yield. Progressive Horticulture. 2011;43(2):337-339.

Borthakur PK, Bhattacharyya RK. Response of mulching on yield and mineral composition of guava (Psidium guajava L). Haryana Journal of Horticultural Science. 1999;28(1-2): 35-37.

Kumar D, Pandey V, Nath V. Effect of organic mulching and irrigation schedule through drip on growth and yield of ‘Lal Sundari’ mango (Mangifera indica) in eastern region of India. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 2008;78:385-388.

Ham J, Senock R. On the measurement of soil surface temperature. Soil Science Society of America Journal. 1992;56:370-377.

Singh J, editors. Mulching. In Basic Horticulture (3rd revised ed.). Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi; 2011.

Agrawal N, Sharma HG, Agrawal S, Dixit A, Dubey P. Comparative study of drip irrigation and surface method with and without plastic mulching in mango cv. Dashehari. Haryana Journal of Horticultural Science. 2005;34(1-2):9-11.

Ghosh SN, Duttaray SK, Megu O. Effect of mulching and irrigation on fruit yield and quality of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L.) cv. Mosambi. International Journal of Agriculture Environment and Biotechnology. 2009;2(1):42-45.

Patil SS, Kelkar TS, Bhalerao SS. Mulching: a soil and water conservation practice. Research Journal of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences. 2013; 1(3):26-29.

Das BC, Maji S, Roy SM. Response of soil covers on guava cv. L-49. Journal of Crop and Weed. 2010;6(2):10-14.

Kim EJ, Choi DG, Jin SN. Effect of pre harvest reflective mulch on growth and fruit quality of plum (Prunus domestica L.). Acta Horticulturae. 2008;772:323- 326.

Kher R, Baba JA, Bakshi P, Wali VK. Effect of planting time and mulching material on quality of strawberry. Journal of Research SKUAST-Jammu. 2010;9(1):54-62.

Ghosh, SN, Bera B. Effect of mulching on soil moisture, yield and quality of pomegranate. Indian Journal of Soil Conservation. 2015;43:92-95.

Kaur K, Kaundal GS. Efficacy of herbicides, mulching and sod cover on control of weeds in plum orchards. Indian Journal of Weed Science. 2009;41(1 & 2):110-112.

Pandey S, Tewari G, Singh J, Rajpurohit D, Kumar G. Efficacy of mulches on soil modifications, growth, production and quality of strawberry (fragaria x ananassa duch.). International Journal of Science and Nature. 2016;7(4):813- 820.

Rao VK, Pathak RK. Effect of mulches on Aonla (Emblica officinalies Gaertn) orchard in sodic soil. Indian Journal of Horticulture. 1998;55:27-37.

Mehraj S, Peer F, Pandit B, Bistati IA, Ganai IH. Effect of organic and inorganic mulches on growth, yield and quality attributes of plum cv. Santa Rosa under temperate conditions. Green Farming. 2014;5:1048-1051.

Das K, Dutta P. Effects of mulching on soil properties and post harvest quality of mango cv. Himsagar grown in new alluvial zone of West Bengal. International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology. 2018;11(2): 259-264.

Pradhan PC, Mishra JN, Panda SC, Behera B. Technical feasibility and economic viability of drip irrigation and polyethylene mulch in mango (Mangifera Indica). Indian Journal of Dryland Agricultural Research and Development. 2010;25(2):91-94.