Studies on the Physicochemical Effects of pH, Sulphate and Zinc Concentrations on the Water Samples in Nsukka Town, Enugu State of Nigeria

Main Article Content

J. C. Ndefo
P. E. Joshua
A. V. Arazu
I. U. Okagu
V. I. Nnamani
J. N. Obeta
S. Cosmas


Most of our water resources are gradually becoming polluted due to the addition of foreign materials from the surroundings. These include organic of plant and animal origin, land surface washing, and industrial and sewage effluents. The problem of environmental pollution due to toxic metals has begun to cause concern now in most major metropolitan cities. Nsukka environs have been plagued with perennial problem of water supplies round the year and a better understanding of its water physicochemically status will help to address this daunting problem and issues of human health. The analysis carried out was on the utility water supplies in Nsukka area. Thirteen sampling areas consisting of four boreholes, six dug wells and three springs were chosen for this research work. A total of 26 water samples were taken from the sampling areas during the dry season and another 26 samples during the wet season. Water samples were collected from these sampling areas and refrigerated at 4°C for processing. Concentration of zinc was determined in each sample by spectrophotometric method. Harch Model C50 digital multi-range meter was used to measure the pH. Chemical parameter such as sulphate was also determined by spectrophotometric method. Bacteriological analysis of the water samples was carried out to ascertain whether there was faecal contamination by the use of multiple tube/most probable number techniques. Sulphate concentration of water sample from spring sources increased significantly (p<0.05) during dry season iiwhen compared with that of wet season. No significant difference (p>0.05) exists in the concentration of zinc compared to all other test samples.

Physicochemical, pH, sulphate, zinc and water sample.

Article Details

How to Cite
Ndefo, J. C., Joshua, P. E., Arazu, A. V., Okagu, I. U., Nnamani, V. I., Obeta, J. N., & Cosmas, S. (2020). Studies on the Physicochemical Effects of pH, Sulphate and Zinc Concentrations on the Water Samples in Nsukka Town, Enugu State of Nigeria. Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, 39(33), 149-157.
Original Research Article


Wards R. iiTap water blues: Herbicides in drinking water, environmental working group. 1994;12.

Adekunle IM, Adetunji MT, Gbadebo AM, Banjoko OB. Assessment of groundwater quality in a typical rural settlement in Southwest Nigeria. Int. J. Environ. Public Health. 2007;4:307-318.

Adelana SMA, Bale RB, Wu M. Quality assessment and pollution vulnerability of groundwater in Lagos metropolis, SW Nigeria. Proceedings of the 1st Inter-national Workshop on Aquifer Vulnerability and Risk, May 28-30, 2003, Salamenia Mexico. 2003;1-17.

Ward NI. Environmental analytical chemistry. In Trace Elements (eds Fifield, F. W. and Haines, P. J.), Blackie Academic and Professional, UK. 1995;320–328.

Rajesh KS, Madhoolika A, Marshall FM. Effects of waste water irrigation on heavy metal accumulation in soil and plants. Paper presented at a National Seminar, Bangalore University, Bangalore, Abst. no. 2004;7:8.

Cech TV. Principles of water resources history, development, management and policy. 2nd Edn., John Wiley and Sons, New York, ISBN: 9780471658108. 2005; 468.

Baldwin DR, Marshall WJ. Heavy metal poisoning and its laboratory investigation (review article). Annals of Chemical Biohemistry. 1991;36:267-300.

Keller W, Pitblade JR. Water quality changes in Sudbury area lakes: A comparison of synoptic surveys in 1974–1976 and in 1981–1983. Water, Air and Soil Pollution. 1986;29:285.

WHO. Sulfate in drinking water: Background document for development of WHO guidelines for drinking-water quality. Published on behalf of the World Health Organization and the United Nations Environment Programme. Oxford, Alden Press; 2004.

WHO Styrene in drinking-water. Background document for preparation of WHO Guidelines for drinking-water quality. Geneva, World Health Organization (WHO/SDE/WSH/03.04/27).

Wangboje OM, Ekundayo OT. Assessment of heavy metals in surface water of the Ikpoba reservoir, Benin City, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Technology. 2013; 32(1):61-66.

Elinder C. G. Zinc. In: Friberg L, Nordberg GF, Vouk VB. eds. Handbook on the toxicology of metals, 2nd ed. Amsterdam, Elsevier Science Publishers. 1986;664-679.

Sim SF, Ling TY, Nyanti L, Gerunsin N, Wong YE, Kho LP. Assessment of heavy metals in water, sediment, and fishes of a large tropical hydroelectric dam in Sarawak, Malaysia. Journal of Chemistry. 2016;Article ID 8923183:10.

Nriagu JO. Zinc in the environment. Part I, Ecological cycling. New York, NY, John Wiley; 1980.

WHO.iZinc in drinking water. Background document for development of WHO guidelines for drinking-water quality. Originally published in Guidelines for drinking-water quality, 2nd ed. Health criteria and other supporting information. World Health Organization, Geneva. 1986;2.

Geetha A, Palanisamy PN, Sivakumar P, Ganesh Kumar P, Sujatha M. Assessment of underground water contamination and effect of textile effluents on Noyyal River Basin in and around Tiruppur Town, Tamilnadu. E-Journal of Chemistry. 2008; 5(4):696–705.

Awoyemi OM, Achudume AC, Okoya AA. The physicochemical quality of ground-water in relation to surface water pollution in Majidun area of Ikorodu, Lagos State, Nigeria. Am. J. Water Resour. 2014;2:126-133.