Topology Optimization of a Straight Subsoiler through Computer Mathematical Modelling

Main Article Content

Saqib Parvaze Allaie
Ashok Tripathi
P. M. Dsouza
Sabah Parvaze


Technologies and computer programs available today provide us with design programs and analytical techniques for solving complex problems in the different engineering disciplines. These technologies and programs have also found their significance in agricultural research. Computer-aided mathematical modelling was used for carrying out the design optimization of a straight subsoiler. At the initial stage, the static structural analysis under static loading conditions was performed. Details on the material and dimensions for the subsoiler were acquired from the manufacturer at the regional level. The existing subsoiler was then optimized for shank thickness, curve length, and shank width. Optimization was carried out for the objectives seeking minimum solid mass and maximum safety factor. The optimized design obtained was remodeled, and its static analysis performed. Results of the stresses, deformation, and safety factor before and after optimization were compared, and the conclusions drawn. The static structural analysis revealed that before optimization, the subsoiler mass was 24.54 kg, and the volume was 3117701.77 mm3. The maximum total deformation was 4.959 mm, maximum equivalent stress was 270.09 MPa, and the maximum principal stress was 295.06 MPa.  The minimum value for the safety factor was 1.296. Parametric correlation of the input and output parameters showed that the relationship among two input parameters viz. shank thickness, shank width, and output parameters was strong. These input parameters were used for response surface generation and design optimization. Optimization reduced both the subsoiler mass and volume by 14.86 %. The maximum equivalent stress and maximum principal stress reduced by 4.10% and 5.39%, respectively, while the total deformation, minimum safety factor, and maximum working life increased by 7.15%, 4.28%, and 14.26%, respectively.

Subsoiler, computer-aided design, finite element method, structural optimization, agricultural machinery design, straight subsoiler.

Article Details

How to Cite
Allaie, S. P., Tripathi, A., Dsouza, P. M., & Parvaze, S. (2020). Topology Optimization of a Straight Subsoiler through Computer Mathematical Modelling. Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, 39(33), 35-46.
Original Research Article


Hamza MA, Anderson WK. Soil compaction in cropping systems: A review of the nature, causes and possible solutions. Soil Tillage Res. 2005.

Gupta SC, Sharma PP, DeFranchi SA. Compaction Effects on Soil Structure. Adv Agron. 1989;42:311–38.

Whalley WR, Dumitru E, Dexter AR. Biological effects of soil compaction. Soil Tillage Res. 1995.

BAKKEN LR, BØRRESEN T, NJØS A. Effect of soil compaction by tractor traffic on soil structure, denitrification, and yield of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.). J Soil Sci. 1987;38:541–52.

Akinci I, Cakir E, Topakci M, Canakci M, Inan O. The effect of subsoiling on soil resistance and cotton yield. Soil Tillage Res. 2004.

Ozmerzi A. Mechanization of Garden Plants. Antalya, Turkey.: Akdeniz University Press; 2001.

Raper RL, Reeves DW, Schwab EB, Burmester CH. Reducing soil compaction of Tennessee Valley soils in conservation tillage systems. J Cott Sci. 2000;4(2):84–90.

Bluntzer JB, Ostrosi E, Niez J. Design for Materials: A New Integrated Approach in Computer Aided Design. Procedia CIRP. 2016;50:305–10.

Bogunovic I, Kisic I. Compaction of a Clay Loam Soil in Pannonian Region of Croatia under Different Tillage Systems. vol. 19. 2017.

Dan Wolf, Thomas H. Garner, Jack W. Davis. Tillage Mechanical Energy Input and Soil-Crop Response. Trans ASAE. 1981;24:1412–9.

A. Khalilian, T. H. Garner, H. L. Musen, R. B. Dodd, S. A. Hale. Energy for Conservation Tillage in Coastal Plain Soils. Trans ASAE. 1988;31:1333–7.

Dransfield P, Willatt ST, Willis AH. Soil-to-implement reaction experienced with simple tines at various angles of attack. J Agric Engng Res. 1964;9:220–4.

Topakci M, Celik HK, Canakci M, Rennie AEW, Akinci I, Karayel D. Deep tillage tool optimization by means of finite element method: Case study for a subsoiler tine. J Food, Agric Environ. 2010;8:531–6.

Kelley T. Optimization, an Important Stage of Engineering Design. Technol Teach. 2010;69:18.

Uzun YH. Optimization Techniques in Mechanical Engineering. Yildiz Technical University, 2006.

Vanderplaats GN. Structural optimization for statics, dynamics and beyond. J Brazilian Soc Mech Sci Eng. 2006;28:316–22.

Jayasuriya HPW, Salokhe VM. A review of soil-tine models for a range of soil conditions. J Agric Eng Res. 2001;79:1–13.

Gupta C, Marwaha S, Manna M. Finite element method as an aid to machine design: A computational tool. Excerpt from Proc. COMSOL Conf. 2009, Bangalore., 2009.

Gu S. Application of finite element method in mechanical design of automotive parts. IOP Conf. Ser. Mater. Sci. Eng., vol. 231, Institute of Physics Publishing; 2017.

Hong L, Jianrong Z. Application of Agriculture Machinery Digitized Design and Manufacture Technology [J]. Agric Equip Technol. 2007;6.

Al-Kheer AAKA. Integrating the concepts of optimization and reliability in the design of agricultural machines. 2010.

Tao Z. Optimization of Steel Storage Rack Pothook Hole Base on ANSYS Workbench. IJRES. 2018;6:14–9.

Alavala CR. Finite element methods: Basic concepts and applications. PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.; 2008.

IS:2062-E250. Hot rolled medium and high tensile structural steel — Specifications. 2011.

Madenci E, Guven I. The finite element method and applications in engineering using ANSYS®. Springer; 2015.

Delfel S. Introduction to Mesh Generation with ANSYS Workbench. Coanda research and development corporation; 2013.

Vedaprabha HC, Ali H. Stress and Deformation Analysis of Accelerated Pedal Mechanism. Int J Eng Manag Res. 2015;5:364–9.

Yadav M V. Force and pressure distribution on selected tillage machinery. M. Tech. dissertation (unpublished), Banda University of Agriculture, 2014.

Ajit K. Srivastava, Carroll E. Goering, Roger P. Rohrbach, Dennis R. Buckmaster. Chapter 8 Soil Tillage. Eng. Princ. Agric. Mach. Second Ed., St. Joseph, MI: American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers; 2006, p. 169–230.

Pelegri AA, Tekkam A. Optimization of laminates’ fracture toughness using design of experiments and response surface. J Compos Mater. 2003.

Bhatia V, Karthikeyan R, Ganesh Ram RK, Cooper YN. Design optimisation and analysis of a quadrotor arm using finite element method. Appl. Mech. Mater., 2014.

Mohansing J. On farm energy use pattern in different cropping systems in Haryana. India. International Institute of Management-University of Flensburg, 2002.

De D, Singh RS, Chandra H. Technological impact on energy consumption in rainfed soybean cultivation in Madhya Pradesh. Appl Energy. 2001;70:193–213.