Main Article Content
Hydrate deposition remains a very willful one in the oil and gas industry and costs the industry billions of dollars worldwide for prevention and remediation in pipelines and flowlines. An economic and environmentally friendly solution to the prevention of hydrate formation is prohibitively expensive.
In this study, a thermodynamic model for hydrate inhibition in gas pipelines by applying the Joule Thomson Expansion phenomenon was developed. The model is a function of the specific gravity, initial and final temperatures, and the initial and final pressures. This developed model comes with the Gopal's constants that make the model trainable to fit data from various expansion processes.
The results obtained for sweet gases were compared with that presented by the Gas Processors Suppliers Association (GPSA) and an error of less than 5% (R2 = 0.9629) was observed. The effect on sour gases was also considered. The pseudo-reduced temperature ranges from 1.05<Tr<3.0 and the pseudo-reduced pressure ranges from 0.2<Pr<5.4. But at extreme values of both pressure and temperature, the result of the proposed model deviates significantly from that of GPSA. The robustness of this model and its ease of use makes it applicable for real-time calculations in the transportation and processing of natural gases.
Adeleke N, Ifyokumbul MT, Adewumi M. Blockage detection and characterization in natural gas pipelines by transient pressure-wave reflection analysis. Society of Petroleum Engineers Journal Paper SPE 160926. 2013;355-365.
Zeng H, Lu HL, Huva E, Walker VK, Ripmeester JA. Chem. Eng. Sci. 2008;63: 4026-4029.
Ohno H, Moudrakovski I, Gordienko R, Ripmeester J, Walker VK. J. Phys. Chem. A. 2012;116:1337-1343.
Perrin A, Musa, OM, Steed JW. The chemistry of low dosage clathrate hydrate inhibitors. Chemical Society Reviews. 2013;42(5):1996-2015.
Sarshar M, Esmaeilzadeh F, Fathikaljahi J. Experimental and theoretical study of gas hydrate formation in a high-pressure Flow loop. Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering. 2010;88:751-757.
Zerpa LE, Aman ZM, Joshi SI, Sloan ED, Koh CA, Sum AK. Predicting hydrate blockage in oil, gas and water – dominated systems. Offshore Technology Conference 23490, Houston, Texas, USA; 2012.
Akinsete OO, Obode EI. Isehunwa SO. A model for the prediction of hydrate growth initiation point by determining quasi liquid layer temperature. SPE Annual International Conference and Exhibition, Nigeria. SPE Paper 189112; 2017.
Hammerschmidt ED. Formation of gas hydrates in natural gas tramission lines. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry. 1934;28(8):851-855.
Wu BJ, Robinson DB, Ng HJ. Three and four phase hydrate forming conditions in the methane-isobutane-water system. Journal of Chemical Theymodynamics. 1976;8:461.
Turner DJ, Kleehammer DM, Miller KT. Formation of hydrate obstructions in pipelines: Hydrate particle development and slurry flow. 5th International Conference on Gas Hydrate. Trondheim; 2005.
Van der Waals JH, Platteeuw JC. Clathrate Solutions, Adv. Chem. Phys. 1959;2(1):1.
Parrish WR, Prausnitz JM. Dissociation pressures of gas hydrates formed by gas mixtures, Ind. Eng. Chem. Proc. Des. Dev. 1972;11:26.
Klauda JB, Sandler SI. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2000;39:3377-3386.
Mehta AP, Sloan ED. A Thermodynamic Model for Structure-H Hydrates. AiChe Journal. 1994;40(2):312-320.
Frostman LM. Anti-agglomerant hydrate inhibitors for prevention of hydrate plugs in deepwater systems. Paper SPE 63122 presented at SPE/ATCE, Dallas, Teaxas, 2000;1-7.
Gopal VN. Gas z-factor equation development for Computer. Oil Gas Journal. 1977;75:58.