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The Bihar state produces more than 80 per cent of Makhana globally. Despite having monopoly production, the net profit earned by Makhana producers is relatively small as the cost of cultivation is high. In order to analyse the cost of cultivation and to identify major cost incurring operations, the present study was conducted in Purnea, Darbangha and Saharsa districts of Bihar. A random sample of 120 Makhana growers and 60 processors was randomly selected from study area. Respondents’ personal interviews were conducted with the help of semi structured interview schedule to collect the data. Findings of the study revealed that majority of the Makhana cultivators belongs to Mallah community. The average age of Makhana growers was 47 years (SD=10.3). The majority of Makhana growers (65.83%) belonged to the age group of 45-64 years. Further it was observed that 100 per cent of the sampled growers’ and processors’ households were headed by males. The average family size of Makhana grower was 9. The majority of the Makhana growers were living in joint family. It was found that, majority (76.66%) of the Makhana growers were having small and marginal holdings of which 34.16 per cent were small farmer and 42.5 per cent were marginal farmer. It was also observed that the average income of the Makhana growers was Rs. 224925 per year. Further it was found that cost of Makhana cultivation per acre was Rs. 48248/acre, The major cost component of Makhana cultivation was found to be the harvesting activity which contributed around 60 per cent of total cultivation cost. The revenue earned by sales of Makhana was Rs. 59299 per care. From each acre of Makhana cultivated farmers earned Rs. 11051. The B:C Ratio of Makhana production activity was found to be 1:1.22. Therefore it was concluded that, there exists ample scope for reduction of cost of cultivation through mechanization of harvesting activity.
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