Micronutrient Biofortification in Pulses: An Agricultural Approach
Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology,
Micronutrients are important growth promoting elements not only for crops but also for human being. More than two billion of the global populations are malnourished. For developing countries like India, micronutrient malnutrition among the people of every age is very common. The impact is highly seen in poor and landless rural people who can’t afford diverse foods or supplements in their diets with needed nutrients. To alleviate this micronutrient deficiency, biofortification has come to the surface as a potent option. Biofortification of crops can increase the level of micronutrients in final food products. Pulses are the cheapest sources of proteins, vitamins and micronutrients and can be supplied to the people through daily diet. Pulses are irrefutable contender for Biofortification since it is easily available to the each and every group of people. This paper focuses on the role of micronutrients on human health and various mechanisms to get nutrient rich staple food along with main emphasis on biofortification.
How to Cite
Prieto MB, Cid JLH. Malnutrition in the critically ill child: the importance of enteral nutrition. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2011;8(11): 4353-4366.
Bharati HP, Kavthekar SO, Kavthekar SS, Kurane AB. Prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies clinically in rural school going children. International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics. 2018;5(1):234-238.
Global Nutrition report; 2018.
National Family Health Survey Report-4, M/o Health & Family Welfare (2015-16).
Global Hunger Index; 2018.
Beard JL. Iron biology in immune function, muscle metabolism and neuronal functioning. The Journal of nutrition. 2001;131(2):568S-580S.
Shankar AH, Prasad AS. Zinc and immune function: The biological basis of altered resistance to infection. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1998;68(2): 447S-463S.
Gilbert C, Foster A. Childhood blindness in the context of VISION 2020: The right to sight. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2001;79:227-232.
Stein AJ, Meenakshi JV, Qaim M, Nestel P, Sachdev HPS, Bhutta ZA. Technical monograph 4.analysing the health benefits of biofortified staple crops by means of the disability-adjusted life years approach: A handbook focusing on iron, zinc and vitamin A. Washington, WA: Harvest Plus; 2005.
Bhatnagar M, Bhatnagar-Mathur P, Reddy SD, Anjaiah V, Sharma KK. Crop biofortification through genetic engineering: Present status and future directions. Institute of Biotechnology, Acharya NG Ranga Agricultural University, Hyderabad 500 030 India; 2011.
Bouis HE, Saltzman A. Improving nutrition through biofortiﬁcation: A review of evidence from Harvest Plus, 2003 through 2016. Global Food Security. 2017;12:49–58.
Bouis HE, Eozenou P, Rahman A. Food prices, household income, and resource allocation: Socioeconomic perspectives on their effects on dietary quality and nutritional status. Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 2011;32 (1):S14–S23.
Graham RD, Welch RM, Bouis H. Addressing micronutrient malnutrition through enhancing the nutritional quality of staple foods: Principles, perspectives and knowledge gaps. Advances in Agronomy. 2001;70:77–142.
Schneeman BO. Linking agricultural production and human nutrition. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 2001; 81(1):3-9.
Allen L, Benoist B, Dary O, Hurrell R. Guidelines on food fortification with micronutrients. World Health Organization and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; 2006.
White PJ, Broadley MR. Biofortifying crops with essential mineral elements. Trends in Plant Science. 2005;10(12):586-593.
Meenakshi JV, Johnson NL, Manyong VM, DeGroote H, Javelosa J, Yanggen DR, et al. How cost-effective is biofortification in combating micronutrient malnutrition? An ex ante assessment. World Development. 2010;38(1):64-75.
Garcia-Banuelos ML, Sida-Arreola JP, Sanches E. Biofortiﬁcation – promising approach to increasing the content of iron and zinc in staple food crops. Journal of Elementology. 2014;19(3):865–888.
Hussain S, Maqsood MA, Rahmatullah M. Increasing grain zinc and yield of wheat for the developing world: A review. Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture. 2010;326-339.
Ofuya ZM, Akhidue V. The role of pulses in human nutrition: A review. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management. 2005;9(3):99-104.
Thavarajah P, Sarker A, Materne M, Vandemark G, Shrestha R, Idrissi O, et al. A global survey of effects of genotype and environment on selenium concentration in lentils (Lens culinaris L.): Implications for nutritional fortification strategies. Food Chemistry. 2011;125(1):72-76.
Johnson SE, Lauren JG, Welch RM, Duxbury JM. A comparison of the effects of micronutrient seed priming and soil fertilization on the mineral nutrition of chickpea (Cicer arietinum), lentil (Lens culinaris), rice (Oryza sativa) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) in Nepal. Experimental Agriculture. 2005;41(4):427-448.
Underwood EJ, Suttle NF. 3rd ed. Wallingford: CABI International Publishin. The mineral nutrition of livestock. 1999;614.
CDC. Breastfeeding Report Card, United states: Outcome Indicators (Publication, from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Immunization Survey; 2010.
Failla ML. Trace elements and host defense: Recent advances and continuing challenges. The Journal of Nutrition. 2003; 133(5):1443S-1447S.
Viteri FE. Anemia and physical work capacity. Clinics in Haematolgy. 1974;3: 609-626.
Beard JL, Connor JR. Iron status and neural functioning. Annual Review of Nutrition. 2003;23(1):41-58.
Brown KH, Peerson JM, Rivera J, Allen LH. Effect of supplemental zinc on the growth and serum zinc concentrations of prepubertal children: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2002;75(6): 1062-1071.
Hambidge KM, Walravens PA. Disorders of mineral metabolism. Clinics in Gastroenterology. 1982;11(1):87-117.
Elahi MM, Kong YX, Matata BM. Oxidative stress as a mediator of cardiovascular disease. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. 2009;2(5):259-269.
Markesbery WR, Lovell MA. DNA oxidation in Alzheimer's disease. Antioxidants and Redox Signaling. 2006;8(11-12):2039-2045.
Klauni EJ, Kamendulis ML. The role of oxidative stress in carsinogenesis. Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology. 2004;44:239-267.
Cui H, Kong Y, Zhang H. Oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and aging. Journal of Signal Transduction. 2012;13.
Shirley R, Ord E, Work L. Oxidative stress and the use of antioxidants in stroke. Antioxidants. 2014;3(3):472-501.
Ventura M, Melo M, Carrilho F. Selenium and thyroid disease: From pathophysiology to treatment. International Journal of Endocrinology. 2017;9.
Norton LR, Hoffmann RP. Selenium and asthma. Molecular Aspects of Medicine. 2012;33(1): 98–106.
Steinbrenner H, Al-Quraishy S, Dkhil MA, Wunderlich F, Sies H. Dietary selenium in adjuvant therapy of viral and bacterial infections. Advances in Nutrition. 2015; 6(1):73-82.
Bouis HE, Welch RM. Biofortification—A sustainable agricultural strategy for reducing micronutrient malnutrition in the global south. Crop Science. 2010;50: 20.
De Valença AW, Bake A, Brouwer ID, Giller KE. Agronomic biofortification of crops to fight hidden hunger in sub-Saharan Africa. Global Food Security. 2017;12:8-14.
Singh MK, Prasad SK. Agronomic aspects of zinc biofortification in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India section B: Biological Sciences. 2014;84(3):613-623.
Rietra RPJJ, Heinen M, Dimpka C, Bindraban PS. Effects of nutrient antagonism and synergism on fertilizer use effciency. VFRC Report 2015/5.Virtual Fertilizer Research Centre, Washington, DC. 2015;47.
Manzeke GM, Mapfumo P, Mtambanengwe F, Chikowo R, Tendayi T, Cakmak I. Soil fertility management effects on maize productivity and grain zinc content in smallholder farming systems of Zimbabwe. Plant and Soil. 2012;361(1-2):57–69.
Vanlauwe B, Descheemaeker K, Giller KE, Huising J, Merckx R, Nziguheba G, et al. Integrated soil fertility management in sub-Saharan Africa: Unravelling local adaptation. Soil. 2015;1(1): 491–508.
Voortman R, Bindraban PS. Beyond N and P: Toward a land resource ecology perspective and impactful fertilizer interventions in sub-Saharan Africa. VFRC Report 2015/1.Virtual Fertilizer Research Center, Washington, DC; 2015.
Lawson PG, Daum D, Czaudema R, Meuser H, Harling JW. Soil versus foliar iodine fertilization as a biofortiﬁcation strategy for ﬁeld-grown vegetables. Frontiers in Plant Science. 2015;6:450.
Hidoto L, Worku W, Mohammed H, Taran B. Effects of zinc application strategy on zinc content and productivity of chickpea grown under zinc deficient soils. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition. 2017; 17(1):112-126.
Phattarakul N, Rerkasem B, Li LJ, Wu LH, Zou CQ, Ram H, et al. Biofortiﬁcation of rice grain with zinc through zinc fertilization in different countries. Plant and Soil. 2012;361(1-2):131–141.
Duffner A, Hoffand E, Stomph TJ, Melse-Boonstra A, Bindraban PS. Eliminating zinc deﬁciency in rice-based systems. VFRC Report 2014/2. Virtual Fertilizer Research Center, Washington, D.C; 2014.
Cakmak I. Agronomic biofortiﬁcation. Conference brief #8, In: Proceedings of the 2nd Global Conference on Biofortiﬁcation: Getting Nutritious Foods to People, Rwanda; 2014.
Hussain S, Maqsood MA, Rengel Z, Aziz T, Abid M. Estimated zinc bioavailability in milling fractions of biofortiﬁed wheat grains and in ﬂours of different extraction rates. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology. 2013;15(5):921–926.
Molina MG, Quiroz CM, de la Cruz Lazaro E, Martinez JRV, Parra JMS, Carrillo MG, et al. Biofortification of cowpea beans (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) with iron and zinc. Mexican Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 2016;17:3427-3438.
Shivay YS, Prasad R, Pal M. Effects of source and method of zinc application on yield, zinc biofortification of grain, and Zn uptake and use efficiency in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis. 2015; 46(17):2191-2200.
Cakmak I, Pfeiffer WH, McClafferty B. Biofortification of durum wheat with zinc and iron. Cereal Chemistry. 2010;87(1):10-20.
Zhang Y, Shi R, Rezaul KM, Zhang F, Zou C. Iron and zinc concentrations in grain and flour of winter wheat as affected by foliar application. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2010;58(23):12268-12274.
Martre P, Porter JR, Jamieson PD, Triboï E. Modeling grain nitrogen accumulation and protein composition to understand the sink/source regulations of nitrogen remobilization for wheat. Plant Physiology. 2003;133(4):1959-1967.
Hidoto L, Worku W, Mohammed H, Taran B. Agronomic approach to increase seed zinc content and productivity of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) varieties on zinc deficient soils of southern Ethiopia. Advances in Life Science and Technology. 2016;42.
Márquez-Quiroz C, De-la-Cruz-Lázaro E, OsorioOsorio R, Sánchez-Chávez E. Biofortification of cowpea beans with iron: iron´s influence on mineral content and yield. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition. 2015;15(4):839-847.
Ali B, Ali A, Tahir M, Ali S. Growth, Seed yield and quality of mungbean as influenced by foliar application of iron sulfate. Pakistan Journal of Life and Social Sciences. 2014;12(1):20-25.
Khalid S, Asghar HN, Akhtar MJ, Aslam A, Zahir ZA. Biofortification of iron in chickpea by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. Pakistan Journal of Botany. 2015;47(3):1191-1194.
Sida-Arreola JP, Sánchez E, Ojeda-Barrios DL, Ávila-uezada GD, Flores-Córdova MA, Márquez-Quiroz C, et al. Can bioforti-fication of zinc improve the antioxidant capacity and nutritional quality of beans? Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture. 2017;29(3):237.
Salih HO. Effect of foliar fertilization of Fe, B and Zn on nutrient concentration and seed protein of Cowpea “Vigna unguiculata”. Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science. 2013;6(3):42-46.
Nandan B, Sharma BC, Chand G, Bazgalia K, Kumar R, Banotra M. Agronomic fortification of Zn and Fe in chickpea an emerging tool for nutritional security – A global perspective. Acta Scientific Nutritional Health. 2018;2(4):12-19.
White PJ, Broadley MR. Biofortification of crops with seven mineral elements often lacking in human diets–iron, zinc, copper, calcium, magnesium, selenium and iodine. New Phytologist. 2009;182(1):49-84.
Alfthan G, Eurola M, Ekholm P. Effects of nationwide addition of selenium to fertilizers on foods, and animal and human health in Finland: From deﬁciency to optimal selenium status of the population. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology. 2015;31:142–147.
Broadley MR, White PJ, Bryson RJ, Meacham MC, Bowen HC, Johnson SE, et al. Biofortification of UK food crops with selenium Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. 2006;65(2):169- 181.
Fordyce FM. Selenium deficiency and toxicity in the environment. In Essentials of medical geology. Springer, Dordrecht. 2013;375-416
Pilbeam DJ, Greathead HMR, Drihem K. Selenium. In: AV Barker, DJ Pilbeam, eds. A handbook of plant nutrition, 2nd edn. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. 2015;165–198.
Smrkolj P, Germ M, Kreft I, Stibilj V. Respiratory potential and Se compounds in pea (Pisum sativum L.) plants grown from Se-enriched seeds. Journal of Experimental Botany. 2006;57(14):3595-3600.
Smrkolj P, Osvald M, Osvald J, Stibilj V. Selenium uptake and species distribution in selenium-enriched bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds obtained by two different cultivations. European Food Research and Technology. 2007;225(2): 233-237.
Garg M, Sharma N, Sharma S, Kapoor P, Kumar A, Chunduri V, et al. Biofortified crops generated by breeding, agronomy and transgenic approaches are improving lives of millions of people around the world. Frontiers in Nutrition. 2018;5:12.
Pixley KV, Palacios-Rojas N, Glahn RP. The usefulness of iron bioavailability as a target trait for breeding maize (Zea mays L.) with enhanced nutritional value. Field Crops Research. 2011;123(2):153-160.
Murgia I, Arosio P, Tarantino D, Soave C. Biofortification for combating ‘hidden hunger’ for iron. Trends in Plant Science. 2012;17(1):47-55.
Dinkins RD, Reddy MS, Meurer CA, Yan B, Trick H, Thibaud-Nissen F, et al. Increased sulfur amino acids in soybean plants over expressing the maize 15 k Dazein protein. In vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology-Plant. 2001;37(6):742-747.
Song S, Hou W, Godo I, Wu C, Yu Y, Matityahu I, et al. Soybean seeds expressing feedback-insensitive cystathi-onine γ-synthase exhibit a higher content of methionine. Journal of Experimental Botany, 2013;64(7):1917-1926.
Hanafy MS, Rahman SM, Nakamoto Y, Fujiwara T, Naito S, Wakasa K, et al. Differential response of methionine metabolism in two grain legumes, soybean and azuki bean, expressing a mutated form of Arabidopsis cystathionine γ-synthase. Journal of Plant Physiology. 2013;170(3):338-345.
Schmidt MA, Parrott WA, Hildebrand DF, Berg RH, Cooksey A, Pendarvis K, et al. Transgenic soya bean seeds accumulating β‐carotene exhibit the collateral enhancements of oleate and protein content traits. Plant Biotechnology Journal. 2015;13(4):590-600.
Flores T, Karpova O, Su X, Zeng P, Bilyeu K, Sleper DA, et al. Silencing of GmFAD3 gene by siRNA leads to low α-linolenic acids (18: 3) of fad3-mutant phenotype in soybean [Glycine max (Merr.)]. Transgenic Research. 2008;17(5):839-850.
Zhang L, Yang XD, Zhang YY, Yang J, Qi GX, Guo DQ, Xing GJ, et al. Changes in oleic acid content of transgenic soybeans by antisense RNA mediated posttran-scriptional gene silencing. International Journal of Genomics. 2014;8.
Aragão FJL, Barros LMG, De Sousa MV, Grossi de Sá MF, Almeida ERP, Gander, et al. Expression of a methionine-rich storage albumin from the Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa HBK, Lecythidaceae) in transgenic bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L., Fabaceae). Genetics and Molecular Biology. 1999;22(3):445-449.
Molvig L, Tabe LM, Eggum BO, Moore AE, Craig S, Spencer D, et al. Enhanced methionine levels and increased nutritive value of seeds of transgenic lupins (Lupinus angustifolius L.) expressing a sunflower seed albumin gene. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 1997;94(16):8393-8398.
King JC, Brown KH, Gibson RS, Krebs NF, Lowe NM, Siekmann JH, et al. Biomarkers of Nutrition for Development (BOND)—Zinc review. The Journal of Nutrition. 2015; 146(4):858S-885S.
Thavarajah D, Warkentin T, Vandenberg A. Natural enrichment of selenium in Saskachewan ﬁeld peas (Pisum sativum L.). Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 2010;90:383–389.
Garrett RG, Gawalko E, Wang N, Richter A, Warkentin TD. Macro-relationships between regional-scale field pea (Pisum sativum) selenium chemistry and environ-mental factors in western Canada. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 2013; 93(6):1059-1071.
Ray H, Bett K, Tar’an B, Vandenberg A, Thavarajah D, Warkentin T. Mineral micronutrient content of cultivars of field pea, chickpea, common bean, and lentil grown in Saskatchewan, Canada. Crop Science. 2014;54(4):1698-1708.
Diapari M, Sindhu A, Warkentin TD, Bett K, Tar’an B. Population structure and marker-trait association studies of iron, zinc and selenium concentrations in seed of field pea (Pisum sativum L.). Molecular Breeding. 2015;35(1):30.
Thavarajah D, Ruszkowski J, Vandenberg A. High potential for selenium biofortiﬁcation of lentils (Lens culinaris L.). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2008;57:10747–10753.
Thavarajah P. Evaluation of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) micronutrient composition: Biofortification opportunities to combat global micronutrient malnutrition. Food Research International. 2012;49(1): 99-104.
Rahman MM, Erskine W, Materne MA, McMurray LM, Thavarajah P, Thavarajah D, et al. Enhancing selenium concentra-tion in lentil (Lens culinaris subsp. culinaris) through foliar application. The Journal of Agricultural Science. 2015; 153(4):656-665.
Nair RM, Thavarajah P, Giri RR, Ledesma D, Yang RY, Hanson P, et al. Mineral and phenolic concentrations of mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek var. radiata] grown in semi-arid tropical India. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 2015;39: 23-32.
Yang F, Chen L, Hu Q, Pan G. Effect of the application of selenium on selenium content of soybean and its products. Biological Trace Element Research. 2003; 93(1-3):249-256.
Blair MW, Astudillo C, Grusak MA, Graham R, Beebe SE. Inheritance of seed iron and zinc concentrations in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Molecular Breeding. 2009;23(2):197-207.
Beebe S, Gonzalez AV, Rengifo J. Research on trace minerals in the common bean. Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 2000; 21(4):387-391.
Petry N, Boy E, Wirth JP, Hurrell RF. Review: The potential of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) as a vehicle for iron biofortification. Nutrients. 2015;7:1144–1173.
Rengel Z, Batten GD, Crowley DD. Agronomic approaches for improving the micronutrient density in edible portions of field crops. Field Crops Research. 1999; 60(1-2):27-40.
Smith SE, Read DJ. Mycorrhizal symbiosis. 3rd ed. London, UK: Elsevier; 2007.
Phi QT, Park YM, Seul KJ, Ryu CM, Park SH, Kim JG, et al. Assessment of root-associated Paenibacillus polymyxa groups on growth promotion and induced systemic resistance in pepper. Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology. 2010; 20(12):1605-1613.
Dary M, Chamber-Peerez MA, Palomares AJ, Pajuelo E. ‘‘In situ’’ phytostabilisation of heavy metal polluted soils using Lupinusluteus inoculated with metal resistant plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2010;177(1):323-330.
Richardson AE. Prospects for using soil microorganisms to improve the acquisition of phosphorus by plants. Functional Plant Biology. 2001;28(9):897-906.
Wani P, Khan M, Zaidi A. Co-inoculation of nitrogen-fixing and phosphate-solubilizing bacteria to promote growth, yield and nutrient uptake in chickpea. Acta Agronomica Hungarica. 2007;55(3):315-323.
Glick BR. The enhancement of plant growth by free-living bacteria. Canadian Journal of Microbiology. 1995;41(2):109-117.
De Santiago A, Quintero JM, Aviles M, Delgado A. Effect of Trichoderma asperellum strain T34 on iron, copper, manganese, and zinc uptake by wheat grown on a calcareous medium. Plant and Soil. 2011;342(1-2):97-104.
Rana A, Joshi M, Prasanna R, Shivay YS, Nain L. Biofortification of wheat through inoculation of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and cyanobacteria. European Journal of Soil Biology. 2012;50:118-126.
Srivastava MP, Tewari R, Sharma N. Effect of different cultural variables on siderophores produced by Trichoderma spp. International Journal of Advance Research. 2013;1:1-6.
Fasim F, Ahmed N, Parsons R, Gadd GM. Solubilization of zinc salts by a bacterium isolated from the air environment of a tannery. FEMS Microbiology Letters. 2002;213(1):1-6.
Biari A, Gholami A, Rahmani HA. Growth promotion and enhanced nutrient uptake of maize (Zea mays L.) by application of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in arid region of Iran. Journal of Biological Science. 2008;8:1015–1020.
Koide RT, Kabir Z. Extra radical hyphae of the mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices can hydrolyse organic phosphate. New Phytologist. 2000;148: 511–517.
Subramanian KS, Tenshia V, Jayalakshmi K, Ramach V. Role of arbuscularmy-corrhizal fungus (Glomus intraradices) (fungus aided) in zinc nutrition of maize. Journal of Agricultural Biotechnology and Sustainable Development. 2009;1(1):029-038.
Whiting SN, de Souza MP, Terry N. Rhizosphere bacteria mobilize Zn for hyperaccumulation by Thlaspi caerulescens. Environmental Science and Technology. 2001;35:3144–3150.
Bürkert B, Robson A. 65Zn uptake in subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.) by three vesicular-arbuscularmycorrhizal fungi in a root-free sandy soil. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 1994;26(9):1117-1124.
Abstract View: 3302 times
PDF Download: 1299 times