Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology (ISSN:&nbsp;2457-1024)</strong> is dedicated to publish research papers, reviews, case studies and short communications from all disciplines of science and technology. By not excluding papers on the basis of subject area, CJAST facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology 2457-1024 Freight Safety in Freight Forwarding Business in Nigeria: The Challenges and Preventive Measure <p>Over the years, water transportation has been a major way of carrying over 90 percent of the physical carriage of Nigeria’s external trade . “The reason behind this overwhelming dominance of water transportation, compared with others can be seen in over congestion of most of our sea ports in Nigeria, even in other countries of the world, can be seen in the over congestion of most of our sea ports in Nigeria.”</p> <p>However, the issue of safety and security in the maritime industry is a serious and complex one. The economic losses arising from security lapse in most of our ports in Nigeria have become unacceptable in today’s commercial climate. The most noticeable distruptions&nbsp; in our present day commercial climate are&nbsp; in the form of kidnapping, terrorism, theft of valuable cargoes, politically motivated crimes. In maritime business world, the undisputed facts are that, loss prevention mechanism which include security, safety, fire and risk management are top priority concerns. This paper has however attempted to analyze the contributing factors to insecurity in most of our seaports in Nigeria. And how insecurity in Nigeria sea can be curtailed or eradicated with the enabling laws governing the usage, management and control of the Nigeria sea ports.</p> Adepoju Adebiyi Anthony Irinyemi Ademola Benson ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-11-12 2019-11-12 1 10 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i530379 False Black Pepper (Embelia ribes) Seeds-natural Colour Source for Wool Dyeing <p>It is a need of the time to try out different sources of natural dyes to colour the textiles as the synthetic dyes used on textiles are carcinogenic and can create havoc in the human life system. The research was carried out for optimizing different conditions for dyeing wool with dye extracted from False Black Pepper seeds. The study was conducted in Department of Textiles and Apparel Designing, College of Community Science, Vasantrao Naik Marathwada Krishi Vidyapeeth, Parbhani, Maharashtra (India). The dyeing conditions optimized for dyeing wool were, medium of dye extraction, dye extraction time, dye material concentration, dyeing time and mordant concentrations. The colour fastness of wool dyed by adopting optimized conditions were tested for different parameters. The&nbsp;&nbsp; alkaline medium was most suitable for extracting dye from False Black Pepper seeds for dyeing wool. On the basis of percent dye absorption the standardized dye extraction and dyeing time was 30 min, dye material concentration was 5%.&nbsp; The highest dye absorption percent was seen when wool was dyed with 10% Potassium Aluminum Sulphate&nbsp; (Alum) mordant in a simultaneous mordanting while for Copper Sulphate mordant 3%&nbsp; in post mordanting and&nbsp; for Ferrous Sulphate it was 3% in pre-mordanting. Wool dyed with False Black Pepper dye using different mordents adopting different mordanting methods exhibited very good to excellent colour fastness to sunlight, washing, rubbing and perspiration except wet rubbing as noticeable&nbsp; colour staining was observed in all the samples.&nbsp; The subtle,attractive colour range of light brown&nbsp; to dark brown &nbsp;acquired by the wool when dyed with False Black Pepper dye using different mordents.</p> Sunita Kale Manisha Karhale ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-11-12 2019-11-12 1 8 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i530380 Diversity and Abundance of Wet Land Bird Species in Lake Hora-Arsedi, Bishoftu, Ethiopia <p>The investigation of species diversity and abundance of birds in Lake Hora Arsedi Bishoftu town was conducted from September 2018 to July 2019. The aim of the study was to assess the diversity and abundance of bird species in Lake Hora Arsedi at Bishoftu town. Point count method was used to investigate the abundance of birds. Observation was conducted periodically walking along the study area early in the morning and late in the afternoon. Different diversity indices and statistical methods (Chi-square test and correlation) were used to analyze data collected during the field survey. Abundance of birds, their richness and evenness as well as birds` diversity recording were made. A total of 14 bird species grouped under 7 orders and 11 families were recorded. The month February had the lowest species diversity (H’= 0.33), species evenness (E = 0.13) and species richness (12). The highest species diversity, evenness and richness were recorded in March and April (H’=0.35), (E = 0.35) and (S = 14), respectively. Variation in abundance of birds was statistically significant between months. Abundance score of frequency of bird species was high during rainy season and uncommon are high during small rainy seasons using encounter rate. Lake Hora Arsedi has a number of natural and human induced bird attractant features. The area possesses favorable places for birds to nest, rest, roost and a good access to food as well as water resources. The study recommends the maintenance of bird watching records to monitor the effectiveness of management and to ensure early detection of any impact on bird numbers or behavior; conservation of Lake Hora Arsedi, its surroundings and making it free from human interference will enable us to conserve these valuable bird species. Hence, conservation measures by wildlife conservation authority and other concerned agencies are important to safeguard these species in the area.</p> Askale Girma Mesele Admassu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-11-14 2019-11-14 1 12 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i530381 Drying Kinetics and Mathematical Modeling of Bottle Gourd <p><strong>Aims:</strong> The aim of this study was to evaluate the drying behavior of bottle gourd slices using tray dryer.</p> <p><strong>Study Design</strong><strong>:</strong> The bottle gourd slices were dried in a tray dryer at 50, 55, 60, 65 and 70 <u>+</u> 1°C. The moisture loss was determined by gravimetry. Readings were taken at 30 minutes till constant weight was observed.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> Experiments were done in Department of Food Science and Technology, MPKV Rahuri and completed within 12 months.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The drying curves were fitted into four different drying models (Henderson, Logarithm, Page and Modified Page) widely accepted for modeling of agricultural materials drying. The best model describing the drying process was selected based on the low RMSE, low χ<sup>2</sup>, and high R<sup>2</sup>.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The drying time at 50, 55, 60, 65 and 70ºC drying temperature were 630, 570, 450, 420 and 360 min respectively for bottle gourd slices. By comparing time required at 50ºC and 60ºC temperature and 60ºC and 70ºC there were 28.57% and 20.00% reduction in drying time respectively. At the beginning of a drying process, the moisture content of fresh bottle gourd was 92.09% (w.b.) which is reduced to 7.08% (wb). The drying rate decreased with increase in drying time. The drying rates were as high as 0.89 at 55ºC and as low as 0.1 at almost all the temperatures. The <em>R</em><sup>2</sup> values ranged from 0.788 to 0.954, the adjusted R<sup>2 </sup>values also ranged from from 0.777 to 0.951, χ<sup>2</sup> values between 0.029 and 0.681, and <em>RMSE </em>values between 0.0533 and 0.3742.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Henderson and Pabis model was found to be a better model for describing the drying characteristics of bottle gourd at all temperatures. The product quality was found well at all the temperature.</p> Murlidhar Ingle A. R. Tapre Radhika Nawkar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-11-15 2019-11-15 1 8 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i530382 Celebrity Self-disclosure and Social Cohesion: Perspectives from Ghanaian Instagram Users <p>The phenomenon of social cohesion has gained much traction in the extant literature. However, research that assesses how celebrity self-disclosure can be leveraged to engender social cohesion remains very scanty in the existing literature. The current study aims at empirically testing the effect of celebrity self-disclosure on social cohesion while accounting for the roles of fans’ behavior, social presence and attachment to celebrities. To realize this aim, data is collected from 306 Instagram users who follow at least one celebrity. The hypothesis intended to realize these aims are tested by adopting structural equation modeling technique. The results show that celebrities’ descriptive self-disclosure (but not emotional self-disclosure) influences fans’ archiving and commenting behavior. Additionally, celebrities’ emotional self-disclosure (but not descriptive self-disclosure) as well as fans’ commenting, and archiving behaviors are instrumental in predicting fans’ social presence. The study further finds that fans’ social presence is essential in predicting their attachment to celebrities, while their (fans’) attachment to celebrities and social presence are significant antecedents of social cohesion. Furthermore, attachment to celebrities is found to significantly mediate the relationship between social presence and social cohesion. The study provides practical and theoretical insights into understanding social cohesion, celebrity self-disclosure, fans’ behavior, social presence and attachment to celebrities.</p> Richard Basilisco Fortune Edem Amenuvor Kwasi Owusu-Antwi Choi Jae Hyeok ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-11-16 2019-11-16 1 19 10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i530383