Cow Dung as a Bioremediation Agent to Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Agricultural Soils

Main Article Content

T. M. Neethu
P. K. Dubey
A. R. Kaswala
K. G. Patel

Abstract

Petroleum derived products are very important as they are energy source and it is prone to accidental spill regularly during the exploration, production, refining, transport and storage. The characteristics of the hydrocarbon content of the petroleum mixture influence the degradability of individual hydrocarbon components; the simpler the hydrocarbon structure the easier its biodegradability and the complex the hydrocarbon structure the harder its biodegradability. Furthermore, the order of biodegradability of hydrocarbon is alkanes > alkenes > alkynes > aromatics. Bioremediation technologies are effective techniques to mitigate many organic and inorganic contaminants such as hydrocarbons, halogenated organic compounds, halogenated organic solvent, non-chlorinated pesticides and herbicides, nitrogen compounds, radionuclides, heavy metals. Bioremediation is having different strategies like an exploration of indigenous microbial populations, bio-stimulation, temperature, soil pH, bio-augmentation, phytoremediation, photo-degradation, phyto-volatilization and phyto-stabilization. Cow dung, excreta of bovine animal is a cheap and easily available bio-resource on earth. Many traditional uses of cow dung are already known in India. Cow dung harbors a diverse group of microorganisms that may be beneficial to humans due to their ability to produce a range of metabolites. Nowadays, there is an increasing research interest in developing the applications of cow dung microorganisms as a bioremediation agent to hydrocarbon contaminated soils. Microorganisms capable of degrading hydrocarbon pollutants have been identified and isolated from cow dung. These organisms include; Micrococcus sp., Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas sp., Enterobacter sp., Proteus kleibsilla, Aspergillus sp., Rhizopus and Penicillium. Therefore, cow dung is an effective, economical and eco-friendly bioremediation agent which can lead to the complete mineralization of hydrocarbon. The post remediation assessment of residual hydrocarbons in contaminated soil can be done with gas chromatographic fingerprinting technique and phytotoxicity bioassay.

Keywords:
Bioremediation, bio-augmentation, cow dung, hydrocarbon

Article Details

How to Cite
Neethu, T. M., Dubey, P. K., Kaswala, A. R., & Patel, K. G. (2019). Cow Dung as a Bioremediation Agent to Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Agricultural Soils. Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, 38(6), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630437
Section
Review Article

References

Samuel EA. Application of carbon-nitrogen supplementation from plant and animal sources in in-situ soil bioremediation of diesel oil: Experimental analysis and kinetic modeling. Journal of Environment and Earth Science. 2013;3(7):51-61.

Abdulsalam S, Adefilia, SS, Bugaje IM, Ibrahim S. Bioremediation of soil contaminated with used motor oil in closed system. J Bioremed. 2012;4(172):2155-6199.

Hentat O, Lachhab R, Ayadi M, Ksibi M. Toxicity assessment for petroleum-contaminated soil using terrestrial invertebrates and plant bioassays. Environ. Monit. Assess. 2013;185:2989-2998.

Okoh AI. Biodegradation alternative in the clean up of petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants. A review. Biotechnology and Molecular Biology. 2006;1(2):38–50.

USEPA. National contingency plan product schedule. Oil programme centre. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington DC; 2001.

ITOPF. Disposal of oil and debis In: Response strategies International Tanker Owners Pollution Federation; 2006.
Available: http:/www.itopf.com/index.html

Rosenberg ER, Legman A, Kushmaro R, Taube E, Adler, Ron EZ. Petroleum bioremediation: A multiphase problem. Biodegradation. 1992;3:337–350.

Cohen AM, Nugeguda D, Gagnon MM. The effect of different oil spill remediation techniques on petroleum hydrocarbon elimination in Australian Bass (Macquaria novemaculeata) Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 2001;40:264–270.

Agamuthu P, Dadrasnia A. Potential of Biowastes to Remediate Diesel Fuel Contaminated Soil. Global Nest Journal. 2013;15(4):474-484.

Timmis KN, Peper DH. Bacteria designed for bioremediatioin. Trends Biotechnol. 1999;17:201-204.

Pye VI, Patrick R. Groundwater contamination in the United States. Science. 1983;221:713–718.

McClay KB, Fox BG, Steffan BJ. Toluene monooxygenase catalyzed epoxidation of alkene. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 2000;66: 1877–1882.

Boopathy R. Factors limiting bioremediation technologies. Bioresour. Technol. 2001;74:63–67.

Bidwell JR, Donald SC, Merski T. Toxicity evaluation of a commercial bioremediation agent mixed with crude oil. Environ. Toxicol. and Chemistry. 2002;22(1):84–91.

Donlon D, Bauder J. A general essay on bioremediation of contaminated soil. Montana State University Bozeman; 2007.
Available:http://waterquality.montana.edu/docs/Donlan.shtml

April TM, Foght JM, Currah RS. Hydrocarbon–degrading filamentous fungi isolated from flare pit soils in Northern and Western Canada. Can. J. Microb. 2000;46 (1):38–49.

Chhatre S, Purohit H, Shankar R, Khanna P. Bacteria consortia for crude oil spill remediation. Water Sci. Technol. 1996;34: 187–193.

Komukai–Nakamura SK, Sugiura Y, Yamauchi–Inomata H, Toki K, Venkateswaran S, Yamamoto BH, Tanaka H, Harayama S. Construction of bacteria consortia that degrade Arabian light crude oil. J. Ferment. Bioeny. 1996;82:570–574.

Venkateswanan K, Harayama S. Sequential enrichment of microbial population exhibiting enhanced biodegradation of crude oil. Can. J. Microbiol. 1995;41:767–775.

Pelletier E, Delille D, Delille B. Crude oil bioremediation in sub Antarctic intertidal sediment; Chemistry and toxicity of oiled residues. Mar. Environ. Res. 2004;57: 311–327.

Oudot J, Merlin FX, Pinvidic P. Weathering rates of oil component in bioremediation experiment in estuarine sediments. Mar. Environ Res. 1998;45:113–125.

Chaineau CH, Rougeux G, Yepremian C, Oudot J. Effects of nutrient concentration on biodegradation of crude oil and associated microbial population in the soil. Soil Biol. Biochem. 2005; 37:1490–1497.

Hoff M. Types of bioremediation and case histories In: Background information, Chevron EFT response plan. Biorem. 1991;8:23–32.

Abulude FO, Couple AA, Dafiewhare BH, Oyeneye OO. Compositional evaluation of livestock dung fed to pigs. J. Sust. Trop. Agric. Res. 2003;6:33–36.

Chauhan RS, Singhal L. Harmful effects of pesticides and their control through cowpathy. IJCS. 2006;2(1):61–70.

Wrabel ML, Peckol P. Effects of bioremediation on toxicity and Chemical composition of No 2 fuel Oil Growth responses of the brown algae Fucus vesiculosus. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 2000;40: 135–139.

Tsutsumi H, Kono M, Takai K, Manabe T, Haraguchi M, Yamamoto I, Oppenheimer C. Bioremediation on the shore after an oil spill from the Nakhodka in the Sea of Japan III field test of a bioremediation agent with microbiological cultures for the treatment of an oil spill. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 2000;40:320–324.

Kumar NPBA, Dushenkov V, Motto H, Raskin I. Phytoextraction: The use of plants to remove heavy metals from soil. Environ Sci Technol. 1995;29:1232– 1238.

Rubio MA, Gorg S, Wilderer PA. Das sequencing batch reak for verfahren: Beeinflussing der organismenzusam–mensetzung von mischkulturen. Forum Mikrobiol. 1986;11:169–175.

Wilderer PA, Jones WI, Dau U. Competition in denitrification systems affecting reduction rate and accumulation of nitrate. Wat. Res. 1987; 21:239-245.

Zengler KJ, Heider Rosello–Mora R, Widdel F. Phototrophic utilization of toluene under anoxic condition by a new strain of Blastochloris sulfoviridis. Arch. Microbiol. 1999;172:204–212.

Brodkorb TS, Legge RL. Enhanced biodegradation of phenanthrene in oil tar contaminated soil supplemented with Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Appl. Environ. Microbial. 1992;58:3117–3121.

Venosa AD, Haines J.R, Nisamaneepong W, Govind R, Pradlhan S, Siddique B. Efficacy of commercial products in enhancing oil degradation in close laboratory reactors. J. Ind. Microbiol. 1992; 10:13–23.

Saxena PK, krishnaraj S, Dan T. Phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated and polluted soils. In: Prasad, M.N.V. and Hagemeyer, J. (editors); Heavy metal stress in plants from molecules to ecosystem. Springer, Berlin, 1999;305–329.

Wenzel WW, Lombi E, Adriano DC. Biochemical processes in the Rhizosphere: Role in phytoremediation of metal polluted soil. In: Prasad MNV and Hagemeyer J. (editors); Heavy metal stress in plants: from molecular to ecosystem, Spring Berlin. 1999;273-301.

Udebuani AC, Ozoh PT. Aspects of the chemistry of soils and Elicine indica growing on seven years old spill site. Inter. J. of Trop. Agric and Food Syst. 2007;1 (2):187-192.

Schnoor JL, Licht LA, McCutcheon SC, Wolfe NL, Carreira LH. Phytoremediation of organic and nutrient contaminants. Environ. Sci. Technol. 1995;29:318-323.

Erickson LE, Banks MK, David LC, Schwag AP, Muralidharan N, Reilley K. Using vegetation to enhance in situ bioremediation. Environ Prog. 1994;13: 226–231.

Ijah UJJ, Antai SP. The potential use of chicken drop Microorganisms for oil spill remediation. Environmentalist. 1988;23 (1):z89–95.

Angela CU, Okoli CI, Harriet CN, Ozoh PTE. The value of animal manure in the enhancement of bioremediation processes in petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated agricultural soils. Journal of Agricultural Technology. 2012;8(6):1935-1952.

Adebayo AG, Akintoye HA, Shokalu AO, and Olatunji1 MT. Soil chemical properties and growth response of Moringa oleifera to different sources and rates of organic and NPK fertilizers. Int J Recycl Org Waste Agricult. 2017;6:281–287.

Tanvi G. Fulekar MH. Cow dung Bacteria offer an Effective Bioremediation for Hydrocarbon-Benzene. International Journal of Biotech Trends and Technology. 2016;6(3):13-22.

Miget RJ. Bacterial seeding to enhance biodegradation of oil slicks. In: The microbial degradation of oil pollutants (eds. Ahearn DG, Meyer SP), Publ. No. LSU -SG -73 - 01, Louisiana State University Centre for Wetland Resources, Baton Rouge. 1973;291-307.

Armstrong SM, Sankey BM, Voordouw G. Conversion of dibenzoithioiphene to biphenyl by sulphate reducing bacteria. Bioitechnol. Letters.1995;17:1133-1137.

Cerniglia CE, Atlas RM, Bioremediation of petroleum pollutant; diversity and environmental aspects of hydrocarbon biodegradation. BioSci. 1995; 45:332–338.

Osazee E, Yerima MB, Shehu K. Bioremediation of crude oil contaminated soils using cow dung as bioenhancement agent. Annals of Biological Sciences. 2015;3(2):8-12.

Obire O, Anyanwu EC Okigbo RN. Saprophytic and crude oil degrading fungi from cow dung and poultry droppings as bioremediating agents. Journal of Agricultural Technology. 2008;4(2):81-89.

Ryan JR, Loehr RC, Rucker E. Bioremediation of organic contaminated soils. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 1986;28:159-169.

Burke, Singh G, Ramnarine B, Louis T. Handbook of environmental management and technology, John Wiley & Sons. 2000;597.

Bahadure S, Kalia R, Chavan R. Comparative Study of Bioremediation of Hydrocarbon Fuels. International Journal of Biotechnology and Bioengineering Research. 2013;4(7):677-686.

Solomon L, Ogugbue CJ, Okpokwasili GC. Post Remediation Assessment of Residual Hydrocarbons in Contaminated Soil in Ogoni Using Gas Chromatographic FingerprintingTechnique and Phytotoxicity Bioassay. J Pet Environ Biotechnol. 2018; 9:367.