Evaluation of the Proximate and Functional Properties of Flours from Brown Variety of African Yam Bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) Seeds

Main Article Content

Ijeoma M. Agunwah
Ijeoma A. Olawuni
Juliana C. Ibeabuchi
Anthonia E. Uzoukwu
Serah O. Alagbaoso

Abstract

Aim: To create variety of flours through food product development by checking the proximate and functional properties of flours from brown variety of African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) seeds.

Study Design: This study was made to fit into a one way Analysis of Variance.

Place and Duration of Study: The research was carried out at the Department of Food Science and Technology laboratory, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria, between July 2017 and September 2018.

Methodology: Brown coloured variety of African yam bean seeds were sorted, soaked, dehulled and milled to obtain full fat flour. The full fat flour was further processed to obtain defatted flour, protein isolate and protein concentrate. The different flours were analysed to determine their proximate and functional properties.

Results: From the results of the proximate composition, it showed that the protein isolate value 89.1±0.23% was higher than the protein composition of the full fat, defatted and protein concentrates which has 21.8±0.16%, 23.1±0.06% and 61.7±0.21% composition respectively. There were no significant difference (p<0.05) between the protein concentrate, protein isolate, full fat flour and defatted flour. The functional properties revealed high bulk density of (0.50± 0.01) for the defatted flour more than the full fat flour (0.35± 0.10) while the emulsion capacity of the protein concentrate and protein isolate flour was found to be (30.7±0.19%) and (35.3± 0.16%) respectively.

Conclusion: The proximate and functional results obtained indicate that the starches from African yam bean will have useful technological properties for many applications both in food industries and in the production industries such as in paper and textile industries. It can also be said that African yam bean represents a source of alternative protein supplement and its protein isolates possess certain characteristics that will aid in protein enrichment for some food products.

Keywords:
African yam bean, protein isolate, defatted flour, protein concentrates, enrichment.

Article Details

How to Cite
Agunwah, I. M., Olawuni, I. A., Ibeabuchi, J. C., Uzoukwu, A. E., & Alagbaoso, S. O. (2019). Evaluation of the Proximate and Functional Properties of Flours from Brown Variety of African Yam Bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) Seeds. Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, 38(6), 1-8. https://doi.org/10.9734/cjast/2019/v38i630388
Section
Original Research Article

References

Lewis G, Schrire B, Mackinder B, Lock M. Legumes of the world. Kew: Royal Botanic Gardens; 2016.

Akinjayeju O, Francis OC. Effects of treatment methods on some properties of Bambara nut flours. International Journal of Agricultural Science, Science and Environmental Technology. 2008;7(2):105-113.

Adewale D. African yam bean: A food security crop? International Institute for Tropical (IITA). From Exploiting the-Diversity-of-African-yam-bean; 2010.
(Retrieved on February, 11th 2011)
Available:http://rdreview.org/2010/03/

Klua GP, Amoatey HM, Bansa D, Kumaga FK. Cultivation and use of African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) in the Volta Region of Ghana. The Journal of Food Technology. 2001;6:74-77.

Adewumi GA, Odunfa SA. Effects of controlled fermentation on the oligosaccharides content of two common Nigerian Vigna unguiculata beans (drum and oloyin). African Journal of Biotechnology. 2009;8(11):2626-2630.

Arntified SO, Isomond MA, Muvary ED. Fate of antinutritinal factors using micellization technique. Food Science and Technology Journal. 1985;19:137-147.

AOAC. Official methods of analysis. 15th Edu. Association of Official Analytical Chemists (A.O.A.C.). Washington D.C.; 2000.

Okaka JC, Potter NN. Functional and storage properties cowpea powder – wheat flour blends in bread making. Journal of Food Science. 1997;42:828–833.

Okezie BO, Bello AB. Physiochemical and functional properties of winged bean flour and isolated comared with soy isolate. Journal of Food Sciences. 1988;53:400–430.

Ukpabi UN, Ndinele DH. Evaluation of the quality of garri product in Imo state. Journal of Food Science. 1990;8:105-110.

Adebowale YA, Sanni LI. Acetylated and succinylated derivatives of African yam bean protein isolate. Journal of Food Technology. 2009;2:34-46.

Olalekan AJ, Bosede BF. Comparative study on chemical composition and functional properties of three Nigerian legumes (Jack beans, pigeon pea and cowpea). Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Applied Sciences. 2010; 1:89-95.

Olawuni I, Ojukwu M, Iwouno JO, Amandikwa C, Ibeabuchi C, Kpaduwa S. Effect of pH and temperature on functional physico-chemical properties of Asparagus bean (Vigna sesquipedalis) flours. International Journal of Basic Applied Science. 2013;2:1-16.

Kaushal P, Kumar V, Shama HK. Comparative study of physicochemical, functional, anti-nutritional and pasting properties of taro (Colocasia esculenta), rice (Oryza sativa), Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) flour and their blends. LWT- Food Science and Technology. 2012;48:59-68.

Adebowale YA, Adeyemi AI, Oshodi AA. Functional and physicochemical properties of six Mucana species. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2005;4(12):1461-1468.

Sathe SK, Salunkhe DK. Functional properties of the great northern bean (Phaseolus viscorites). Proteins: Emulsion, foaming, viscosity and gelation properties. Journal of Food Science. 1982;46:71-81.

Ihekoronye AI, Ngoddy PO. Integrated food science and technology for the tropics. Macmillan Publishers Ltd Basingstoke, London; 1985.